1 Introduction

Various Jewish rabbinic visions (see, among others, Ginzberg, volumes 5 and 6, 1998 et al.) State that world history would be influenced by the (spiritual) contradiction between Jacob (Israel) and Esau (Edom and Rome). After all, Rebekah was expecting twins, which Yahweh says have two nations in her body. The one nation Jacob, symbolizing Israel, would signify the principle of the future and redeemed world. While the other Esau, symbol of Edom and Rome, would represent the principle of the existing and fallen world. The Jewish Talmud states that the principle of Esau is always revealed in certain cultures. An example is Babel under Nimrod. Nimrod built, among others, the cities of Babel, Arech, Nineveh, Akkad and Kalne [1]. De Graaff (1993) claims that the principle of Esau would be most strongly represented in Rome. Esau would be the prototype of the world empires that would oppress Israel in the future and stop the redemption of the world. These empires themselves want to gain world domination, maintain themselves and believe that they can realize salvation in the world. Jacob is said to be the prototype the redemption of the world. According to the Jewish view, there is no greater event in history than the spiritual battle between (principle) Israel and the (principle) of Rome. This battle would continue to manifest itself over time. Examples can be found in the anti-Semitism, persecutions and exiles of the people of Israel. The book of Daniel speaks of the angelic princes or guardian angels of Media and Persia and Greece. Empires under which Israel was in exile. These guardian angels are said to be hostile to Israel. Yet, in the Jewish tradition, the exile under Edom-Rome, in addition to the other exiles, would be the heaviest and the longest. Therefore, it would be about the conflict between the culture of Israel, summarized in the Torah and the culture of Edom-Rome, summarized in violence and (political) power. Daniel 10 further states that of the other angelic princes, no one helped the heavenly messenger to Daniel but the guardian angel of Israel, Michael. It is logical to assume that Edom-Rome would also be under the influence of an angelic prince or guardian angel.


1.1 Questions

From the previous text, the following questions are asked.

1. How is the contrast between Esau and Jacob explained in the Jewish tradition?

2. Why is Esau Edom-Rome?

3. Who is the Angelic Prince of Rome?

4. What is the history of this contradiction?


To find answers to this, information has been collected from the Bible, the Jewish legends in Ginzberg [2] and in the Gutenberg project and Jewish / rabbinic literature.


1.2 Method and purpose of the study

One method of research is to draw up a concept model in advance and to analyze (limited) empirics from the model (Segers, 1977). However, there are studies for which there is no clear concept beforehand. This occurs, for example, in exploratory research. During the research there will be more clarity about a concept. Historical research, for example, usually has limited sources from the past. This makes it difficult to present hard facts. The research then counts as qualitative research. The emphasis here is more interpretative than explanatory (Swanborn, 1987, in methods of social science research).

As already noted the concept of Jacob and Esau has its origins in the rabbinic tradition. This is about the influence of spiritual powers behind the culture and the social system. In functionalism (a sociological movement), Durkheim argues that religion has an important function to maintain the social system (Smelser and Warner, 1976). Religion has another important function, however, namely connecting the visible world to the world of the gods. These gods are said to be jointly responsible for maintaining their social system and culture in addition to humans (Psalm 82).

According to Weber, every religion was composed of a number of gods, but the rationalization of the religion created a distinct pantheon of gods (Weber, in Ritzer, 1981). Special priests, according to Weber, were responsible for the rationalization process of the religion. The rabbinic tradition states that in Jewish legends the fate of, for example, Israel as the main enemy of Rome becomes more visible than in historical facts (in Ginzberg, volume 5, 1998).


In addition to the previous text about the relationship of spiritual powers in the earthly event, Michaël Epstein (1997, in Appendix, Synopsis of Daniil Andreev's treatise The rose of The World) [3], describes a method applied by Daniil Andreev. According to Daniil Andreev, history is more than just observable facts and connections in our time space. It is precisely about the unified history of this world with that of all other (invisible) worlds. It is the totality of processes that have been implemented in all dimensions of the time space and that sometimes shine through the social history of humanity. This history in itself is again a modest part of meta history. Andreev categorizes three stages of metahistorical knowledge [4]:

1. Lighting.

2. Contemplation.

3. Interpretation.


Andreev claims that there are super nations with a (meta) culture. Examples include the Roman Catholic Supernation, the Germanic Protestant Supernation and the Russian Supernation. Each supernation would create its own transmission, as a specific view of the multitude of realities. This, according to Andreev, is the collective identity of connected nations. A supernation would be flanked by two (meta) culture areas. The top layer [5] is the (meta) cultural abode of enlightened souls of the supernation, holy cities and celestial spirits. The bottom layer is the home of the supernation's demonic powers.


It can be said that there would also be a Jewish Supernation. The confrontation would then go between the (meta) culture of Israel and the (meta) culture of Esau, which can manifest itself in multiple cultures.


Finally, Alice Woutersen-van Weerden (1997) claims that in earlier times spiritual beings were perceived as realities and could be perceived with the then still existing clairvoyant powers of man. These methods were developed in mystery schools, which in a way were universities of the ancient world. In earlier times faith and science were still one. There is currently a large gap between the two, which threatens to wither both.


The research is exploratory, inventorying and descriptive. The aim of the research is to investigate what the various sources may tell us about the phenomenon of the contrast between Jacob and Esau. It will be clear that drawing hard conclusions will not be easy. Matter is too complex for that, especially when it comes to supernatural beings, who cannot be measured quantitatively and are invisible.

Andreev's concept can help us to clarify the invisible worlds and the (meta) cultural areas, which would influence events in our time space.


1.3 Chapter division

Chapter 2 begins with a division of the nations and their gods. Chapter 3 describes the relationship between Nimrod and Esau. It describes why there are similarities between Nimrod and Esau. Chapter 4 Rebakka and two nations deals with the beginnings of the opposition of Esau and Jacob and their descendants. Chapter 5 deals with the battle between Jacob and the angel. Chapter 6 indicates the possible connection between Esau and Edom and Rome. Chapter 7 deals with the four exiles of Israel among the world empires. Chapter 8 indicates the relationship between the function of Solomon's throne and the rulers of the four empires. In chapter 9 the relationship between Esau, Babel, Rome, Christianity and the West is elaborated. Chapter 10 describes the angelic prince of Rome and what other functions this angel would perform. Finally, Chapter 11 presents an evaluation and conclusions.


2 The division of the nations and their gods

The first chapter of Israel, Hellas, Rome states that Babel, Edom and Rome are inspired by the same angelic prince. It would be the principle of Esau, which manifests itself in different cultures. The first culture is the Babylonian Empire under Nimrod (De Graaff, 1993).

Questions arise from this, because Nimrod is a descendant of Ham and Esau of Shem. According to Jewish tradition, the 70 nations that arose from the descendants of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japhet each have their own angelic prince. Israel is said to have two guardian angels Michael and Gabriel (Genesis 11: 7 and 8, Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998). But Gabriel as an angelic prince would not conform to Daniel 10:20 (Ginzberg, 1998, Volume 5). However, the angelic princes are under the highest God to whom they are accountable.


This also ties in with Deuternomium 32: 8, which shows that the Most High has determined the borders of the nations according to the number of the sons of God or Israel [6] and that Moses (Deuternomium 4:19) says to the people of Israel that they may not lift their eyes to heaven, moon, and stars, and all the lord of heaven, and serve them. As for the latter, the Lord has allocated it to the rest of the nations under heaven. Project Gutenberg, the Legends of the Jews, 1998 also states that God built the Tower of Babel the 70 angels assigned a specific nation with a specific language. In addition, 72 nations are mentioned, because Israel and Edom would be added even later. Mankind's original language would have been Hebrew. God used this language in creation. Rabbi Goldberger (1995) claims that despite the coming and going of nations "of the world," the very same nations cannot be expected to exist forever. But the number "70" as the paradigm for the Gentile nations remains intact. It is understandable that the original number of 70 can be replaced. Examples are Esau and Ishmael, although they have roots in one of the original 70. This would be an explanation of the promise to Abraham.


A. Dughin (in Arctogaia, 1998) claims that an angel or heavenly being is assigned to every nation in the world. This angel is constantly present in the given nation. In traditional societies, the angel revealed himself in "divine" kings, great heroes, pastors, and saints. After the fall of the monarchist dynasties, the angel can incarnate in a collectivity such as an order, class or even a party. So a nation counts as a metaphysical category. The nation is not only made up of individuals who speak the same language and culture, but also a mysterious angel who shows itself in history. According to Dughin, a national angel should not be seen as something vague, sentimental or shadowy. It is an intellectually luminous being and represents the thought of God.


The angelic princes of the nations plead their cause to the highest God. However, these angelic princes are jealous and hostile to Israel and cannot be considered absolute good angels. God's wrath on these angels is first exercised before the nations entrusted to their care are punished (The Baptism of Proselytes in Christian Classics, Calvin College 2000 and Ginzberg 1998, Brewer, 1999, Angels "Ministering Spirits" in a Bible Study , United Baptist Church). This is consistent with Psalm 82 [7] which states that the gods can be condemned and will die as humans. An example can be seen in Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998, where God pronounces judgment on the angelic prince of Egypt, then on the Egyptians. The angelic prince of Egypt is said to be Rahab or Duma according to a rabbinic view. Another rabbinic view claims that Sammaël [8] is the guardian angel of Egypt (Ginzberg, volume 6, 1998). But there is also a rabbinic legend that claims that Uzza [9] or Uzziel was the guardian angel of Egypt, who is said to have been cast into the Red Sea. According to Jewish traditions, Uzziel was classified in variations among the cherubim and the powers (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998, and Connnie Chronister, 2000, adaptation from Angels A to Z, Mark Bunsen).

The guardian angel Kal, the Babylonian Kalnebo, of Nebuchadnezzar would first be cast down before the king's sentence was executed (Ginzberg, volume 6, 1998).

The rabbis would also know of the general rule that God's vengeance will be wrought on the guardian angels first, before punishing the nations entrusted to them. This view is also found in the Talmud and Midrash (Ginzberg, volume 6, 1998).

Furthermore, Deuternomium 4: 7 says: After all, what great nation is there to whom the gods are as near as the Lord our God, whenever we call to Him?

In the heavenly places there would also be wars between the guardian angels of the nations. God also uses these angels. Yet they have a common opponent in Israel. Michael is the angel of Israel (Daniel 10). Simcha Kuritzky (1984, in Kabbalistic Magic Part III) claims that Kabbalists believe that there are angels protecting both nations and individuals. Whatever happens on earth between nations is preceded by similar activities in the heavenly places.


However, when Israel will not obey God it is accused by the angels of the other nations, the angels Michael and Gabriel protect Israel from the other angelic princes. After all, if God had not assigned Israel guardian angels, Israel would not be able to survive because of the hostile Gentiles (Project Gutenberg, 1998).


It is noted that Maimonides [10] a well-known 12th century Jewish philosopher of religion, on rational grounds, equated the angels mentioned in the Bible as natural forces or natural elements, or with people inspired by God (Isodore Epstein, History of Judaism, 1965).


3 Nimrod and Esau

Jewish tradition states that Nimrod and Esau acted accordingly. The Encyclopedia Judaica mentions that the two famous hunters in the Bible, Nimrod and Esau, are considered derogatory. They were rebels against God. They acted contrary to the spirit of Judaism. The Rabbinic attitude against hunting is negative. Both Nimrod and Esau killed animals to kill. In the Jewish Torah, unnecessary killing, including animals like God's creatures, is not allowed. They are the only ones in the Bible who are said to have hunted to kill. Hunting is prohibited in Rabbinic Judaism (Humane Religion, Jews, Christians, and Hunting 1997). From this it can possibly be stated that they acted from the same (hunter) spirit.

Nimrod would have been the first man to eat meat and to possess the two cloaks. The cloaks had come into his possession through Adam's Cain [11]. Adam and Eve had received these beautiful cloaks when they left Paradise. Before the fall they were dressed in cloaks of light. The cloaks were made by God from the skin of a female Leviathan. These mantles served as priestly mantles for generations before the Flood. After Adam, the garments would have come into Cain's possession, and after Cain's death and the Flood, Nimrod would eventually have acquired these cloaks (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998 and Project Gutenberg, 1998). These cloaks are said to be the garments God made for Adam and Eve. [12]


Midrash Tanchuma states that the twins Esau and Jacob grew up. Esau was a man experienced in hunting and a man of the field. From this verse Esau's tendency to thirst for blood might be deduced (Rabbi Jeff Forsythe, in his commentary on Genesis 25:27, in Hashkofa, 2000).

The Legends of Jews (Project Gutenberg, 1998) and Louis Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) also state that Satan [13] (Sammaël) appeared to Nimrod and advised him to seize Abraham.


Nimrod had Abraham arrest the son of Terah, who had a high office in the court of Nimrod, and he later wanted to kill Abraham. This is because Abraham refused to worship the images of Nimrod. Abraham miraculously escaped with the help of God. It is also alleged that Nimrod had obtained the garments that God had given to Adam. Esau would later murder Nimrod so that he obtained the cloaks (Project Gutenberg, Volume 5, 1998).


3.1 Nimrod and the corruption of humanity

Nimrod is said to be the first corrupt leader to rebel against God. Nimrod had received two coats from his father. These garments [14] were made by God and given to Adam and Eve when they left paradise. Kush, the father of Nimrod, would have received these cloaks again from his father Ham. How did Ham get these cloaks? From Adam and Eve, the cloaks were given to Enoch, Methuselah and finally to Noah. Noah had taken the cloaks into the Ark. When Noah and his family left the ark, Ham would have stolen and hid the cloaks. Then he gave the robes to Kush. Kush returned the cloaks to Nimrod when he was 20 years old. These garments are said to have miraculous properties. Whoever would wear such a cloak would be invincible and irresistible. The animals and birds in the woods would fall before Nimrod as soon as they caught sight of them as they lined up for him. The same principle of victory applied to his fight against people. Both animals and humans were unaware of why he was invincible. This meant that he gained power over them, which is why they appointed him king. This appointment came after conflicts between descendants of Kush and Japhet (Project Gutenberg, 1998 and Bible Prophecy Research, 1999). Both the Japhites and the Semites had their own chieftains. Joktan was the leader of the Semites and Phenech of the Japhites. Nimrod could easily overcome them [15] (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998, Project Gutenberg, 1998).

Nimrod chose Shinear as its capital. From there he continued to build his empire until he was the sole ruler of the world. As the ninth ruler from creation, he had the same power as the Messiah. He had idols made of wood and stone to be worshiped. With the success of Nimrod, people no longer trusted in the dependence on God, but in their own bravery and ability. Nimrod had to convert all people in the world to this view. Therefore, the people said, There is no one like Nimrod a mighty hunter of man and animals, but a sinner before God.

Nimrod's injustice and wickedness would culminate in the construction of the Tower of Babel. Construction was carried out in Shinear by 600,000 people. They wanted to kill all beings [16] in heaven. That is why God called the 70 angels around his throne to go to earth and confuse the languages. Each angel received a nation (Project Gutenberg, 1998).


Yet God would long-term punish the sinful generation of the Tower of Babel compared to the pre-Flood generation. The generation before the flood was completely destroyed, while the generation of the tower was spared despite their blasphemy and their other actions against God (Project Gutenberg, 1998).


4. Rebekah and two nations

When Rebekah was seven months pregnant, her stomach ached [17] as the twins began their lifelong quarrels. They tried each other at Esau assumed there was no better life than the earthly life with its material pleasure. Jacob replied however: My brother there are two worlds. The present world and the world to come. I choose the future world. Esau had the angel Sammael as his ally, who tried to kill Jacob in his womb. But the angel Michael [18] came to help Jacob. Even in the womb [19] there was already a struggle for possession of the first birthright. Each wanted to be the first. When Esau threatened that their struggle would cost their mother's life, Jacob led the way (Project Gutenberg, 1998).

Rebekah asked other women if they had had similar pain. They replied that they had never experienced and heard such a situation except when Nimrod's mother was pregnant. She went to Mount Moriah where Shem and Eber had their Bet-ha-Midrash. Shem answered her, "I entrust a secret to you. Two nations are in your womb. The world is too small to live peacefully together. A world that is of sin and a world that is of the Torah. One nation is Rome and the other nation is Jacob. The two nations are needed to uplift the other 70 nations. Both nations will be hated in the world. Esau will subdue the world first, but Jacob will rule at the end of time. " However, the rule of the world by Israel under the Messiah will be eternally dead (Project Gutenberg, 1998). More on this later.


In Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) it is stated that Rebekah prophesied that the Romans, the descendants of Esau, would kill a large part of the Jewish scholars. She prayed to God not to destroy all scholars.


Both brothers went to school during their childhood, but when they were 13 their ways separated. While Jacob continued his studies in the Beth ha Midrash of Shem and Eber, Esau served idols and led an immoral life. Among other things, he killed people and denied God. These included Nimrod and two of his aides. There would be long-term enmity between Esau and Nimrod (Project Gutenberg, 1998). This is because the powerful hunter Nimrod was jealous of Esau, who matched him in the hunt. Esau was ambushed. When Nimrod had taken off his cloak, which made him invincible, Esau was able to kill him. Esau stole these garments, giving Esau power over animals and people (The Legend of Jews, 1998, in Project Gutenberg and Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).


5. Jacob fights with an angel

D'Var Torah (1998) states that Jacob fought with G-d or Michael. But there are also other interpretations (including Rashi) that Jacob struggled with Sammaël the guardian angel of Esau. In Shabbat Vayishlah, 1997, Rabbi Allan Kensky writes that Jacob struggled with Esau's guardian angel. As Esau's guardian angel failed to defeat Jacob, so will the future enemies of Israel try to destroy Israel, but they will not succeed there. In the Weekly Torah Portion, a selection of Midrash and Talmud, Rabbi Bell (1996) writes that the angel of Esau fought against Jacob but could not defeat him.

In Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) it says that in the legends there are different explanations for this angel. According to a statement, Metatron = Michael is being held as the guardian angel of Israel.

Other sources in Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) claim that Jacob fought Esau's guardian angel. Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) also states that this angel would be Sammaël [21], the guardian angel of Rome and Esau. Esau is said to symbolize Roman officials.


5.1 Why did Jacob struggle with a man at night?

The Talmudic rabbis claim that the "man" was not a standard human being. He was Esau's guardian angel [22] and his values ​​(Rabbi Forsythe, in Hashkofa [23]: Torah Views, 2000). According to, Zohar in Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) is the guardian angel of Esau Sammaël, because he is the angelic prince of Rome. Furthermore, Ginzberg states that also in Kabbalistic literature Sammaël is the angel of Esau. He chose the people of Seir as his people. According to Simcha Kuritzky (1984), Satan is the guardian angel of the Roman Empire and he was also the agent of the Diaspora (exile). An exile that would result for the Jews as punishment for their disobedience to God. The Pentateuch, on Genesis chapter 32:24 and 25, mentions that Jacob was struggling with a man. This man is said to be the guardian angel of Esau, the incarnation of evil. Reference is made to Hosea 12: 4 and 5, where Jacob struggled with an angel. Jacob's struggle with the "man" would symbolize the struggle with evil that he and his descendants should lead to the end [24]. Others claim that it was a holy angel symbolizing Jacob's struggle with the spiritual in the future [25]. It is striking that both the man (Genesis 32, 27-30) and God (Genesis 35, 9-11) blessed Jacob and said to him that from now on his name would be Israel. Rabbi Jeff Forsyth, claims that Jacob fought with both God and men and overcame. This would mean a test from God [26]. He mentions Pirkai DeRebi Eliezer, who claims that it was the angel of Israel who Jacob changed his name to his name, namely Israel (Jeff Forsythe, in Hashkofa, 2000).


5.2 Why did Jacob fight with the angel of Esau?

According to Harry Simon Maurice Sperling (1934, in the Zohar translation, the Socino Press, London), there was a tree from which Adam and Eve were not allowed to eat the fruits on pain of death. The Fall destroyed the first tree God created in the world. From the secret, Sammael brought curses into the world through Wisdom. Sammael also destroyed the first tree (the tree of life) that God created in the world. This responsibility was now with Sammael until another sacred tree was to come. Jacob was the symbol of this tree. However, Jacob should wrestle Sammaël's blessings loose. The reason for this is that Sammael would not be blessed above and Esau below. Jacob is said to be a reproduction of Adam. If Sammael were to withhold the blessings from the first tree, Jacob who was like Adam under the other tree would do the same. Jacob would then be able to withhold the blessings both above and below for Sammael. This allowed Jacob to regain the blessings.


According to Gershom Scholem (Zohar, 1995), Jacob received blessings at various times from:

1. God (Elohim) [27].

2. His father [28].

3. The Guardian Angel of Esau [29].


When the time comes for these blessings to work, the world will be in harmony. One kingdom will then control all the kingdoms in the world. This kingdom will last forever. According to Rabbi Eiliyahu Safrah (1999, in Insights on the Haggadah and Pesach), the battle between Jacob and Esau continues until the Messiah will come. This is because the Torah says that a man struggled with Jacob until daybreak.


Schochet (1991) claims that it has been stated in Hasidic texts that after the struggle Jacob was ready for the ultimate Messianic Redemption [30]. Jacob is said to have learned much of the Torah and served the Almighty with all his heart. Therefore, Jacob would be ready for the actual and final redemption. However, it turned out that Esau was not receptive to this at the time. Esau would therefore postpone redemption. This is because he did not yet want to repent, which is evident from the answer of his messengers (Genesis 32: 6).


5.3 What are Jacob and Esau's principles during the struggle?

Rabbi Jeff Forsythe (in Hashkofa: Torah views, 2000) claims that the struggle was not physical in nature. It would be a battle between the values, ideologies and lifestyles of Jacob and Esau.

Jacob is the prototype of the Jew (tzadik) and the Jewish family values ​​system. Holy, godly, God-fearing who is obedient to the Torah. Jacob represents compassion, kindness, gratitude, the caring husband and father, student and teacher of the Torah. Because of these qualities, he and his descendants would always be attacked.

Esau is the prototype of power, militarism, politics, world achievements outside the home, conquest and the absence of morals. Someone who wants to do what he wants.

So it is a struggle between values ​​and norms. A battle between spiritual and worldly values.


The night presents the exile. This is true of the Jews as long as they do not have a temple and a unified Jewish Torah community is missing in the land of Israel [31] (Hashkofa, 2000, Rabbi Jeff Forsythe).


6. Esau is Edom and Rome

Esau would later call himself Edom, which means red in Hebrew [32]. Red means that Esau and his descendants characterize war, murder and bloodthirst [33] (Rabbi Jeff Forsyte in Hashkofa, 2000). Esau is said to be the ancestor of the nation of Edom and its nature. While Edom would then be the spiritual (ancestor) of Rome and her nature. The Talmud designates Rome as a nation and culture of guilt and evil (Hashkofa, 2000, Rabbi Jeff Forsythe). Especially after 1700, many current forces would attempt to destroy the Torah. These are Haskala, Communism, Socialism, Nazidom, Materialism, Secular Zionism, Judaism without Torah, Atheism, Missionaries and Assimilation. Today, the West claims to have the most advanced, authentic and progressive civilization. Even the Christians who are also descended from Rome claim that they are the new Israel. They call the Jews Hebrews. According to them, Jews are no longer Israel and they also claim to have the true religion [34] (Rabbi Jeff Forsythe, in Hashkofa, 2000).


A publication of a sermon and exegesis by Rabbi Jeff Kurtz-Lendner [35] (1999) on Genesis 25: 27-28, according to the Midrash, states that Edom would become a powerful nation of Rome. Rome would control half of the earth for a long time. Rome will contribute much to humanity. It will also enable the emergence of a great religion, namely Christianity, the second child of God.


Through the Christian spirit, God will rule and the name of God will be made known. Christianity will inherit the name Edom, [36] also rule through tyranny and torture [37], and wage war in the name of God. Christianity is jealous of Israel [38] and will persecute Israel for centuries.


6.1 Magdiel is Rome

In the Pentateuch on Genesis chapter 36:43, it can be read that the Edomite tribe is believed to have founded Rome under the leadership of Magic [39].


7. Exile


7.1 The current exile

Israel would end up in four exiles. Israel would now live in the fourth Jewish exile, that of Rome including Western civilization. Rome destroyed the Holy Temple, traditional Jewish life, and killed thousands of Jews, spreading the Jewish people around the world. Because of this struggle, the Torah (Rabbi Jeff Forsythe, in Hashkofa, 2000) prophesies that, according to the rabbis, the Messiah will return for the Jewish year 6000. We now live approximately in the year 5780.


The current exile of Edom-Rome is so called because the Romans destroyed the holy temple. This exile is divided into two eras. These eras are ruled by two chieftains.


The first leader is Magdiel. His name means and is an expression of "he exalts himself above every god" (Daniel 11:36). In the first period of exile, the Roman Empire expanded across the then known world [40]. The Romans tried to overcome Judaism. This made it difficult for the Jews to study the Torah (Rabbi Schochet, in Living with Messiah, 1991).


7.2 The four kingdoms including the exiles (Ginzberg, volume 5, 1998).


The four kingdoms:

1. Assyria-Babylon.

2. Media and Persia.

3. Macedonia-Greece.

4. Edom (Rome). Later, the fourth empire would be a form of Edom and Ishmael, such as Christianity and Islam (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).


The four exiles are:

1. Babylon-Chaldea.

2. Media-Persia.

3. Macedonia-Greece.

4. Edom-Rome and Ishmael Arabia.


7.3 The four kingdoms and their exiles

Rabbi Mendel Weinbach, in his commentary on insights into Megillas Ester [41] (1995), describes Jacob's dream at Bethel (Genesis 28: 10-16). Jacob saw the angels climb up a ladder to heaven. These angels are the guardian angels of the four realms of the four exiles.


The exile under Babylon

Jacob saw the angel, Kalnebo of Babylon-Chaldea climb 70 rungs. The sports would symbolize the number of years of exile in the nation concerned.

In Babylonia, according to Isodore Epstein (1965), the Jews developed a powerful religious activity. They saw themselves as threatened with a rapid demise as a people by an almost inevitable shrinking merging into their pagan environment. Yet the government of Babylonia saw the importance of allowing the Jews to continue to practice their own religion. Many Jews were given high and influential positions, such as Daniel.


The exile under Media and Persia

Then came the angel, Dobiel [42] of the Medes and Persians, who climbed 52 rungs.These sports symbolized the Medical Exile. During this period, the Amalekite Haman [43] tried to destroy the Jews. Ginzberg (Volume 6, 1998) states that Amalek would also represent Rome. So here the seed of Esau can be seen again in the Persian Empire. In Ginzberg, (Volume 6, 1998) it is stated that Mordechai has prevented the assassination of Ahasueros. Sammael is said to have tried to remove the poison from the cup, which would have made the charge of Mordecai false. However, Gabriel put it back in the cup, exposing the conspiracy.

Yet according to Isodore Epstein (1965), Jews would have lived under favorable conditions under Persian rule, just as under Babylonia.


The exile under Macedonia and Greece

Then the angel of Macedonia-Greece came. This angel climbed 180 sports. This is the Hellinist exile. The Jews would suffer under this yoke during the reign of Antiochus IV until their liberation on Chanukah [44] (Rabbi Mendel Weinbach, 2000 and Isodore Epstein (1965).


According to Isodore Epstein (1965), Alexander the Great of Macedonia was not a world conqueror of the ordinary type. He was not focused solely on gaining more power. He had a higher goal of spreading Greek civilization and sharing the world with her gifts. Alexander did not forcibly impose Greek civilization. The Jews could continue to exercise and maintain their own faith under his rule. This also applied partly to his successors [45]. Later, under the Seludian Antiochus IV, Theos Epifanes (the god who appeared on earth) (175-164 BC), the Jews would be oppressed in Palestine.

The Hellinism that reached Palestine and the other countries east of the Mediterranean was unfortunately not the classical civilization that had found its highest expression in the philosophical field in Pythagora, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. This was more primitive and superficial and mixed with many non-Greek, oriental elements. It was a varnish owned by soldiers, merchants and the slave traders. Antiochus [46] wanted to stamp out Judaism. The temple was made available for the worship of Olympian Zeus.


Hellinism would later have a great influence on Western civilization. This would begin with the conquests of Aristotle's greatest student, Alexander the Great. Until today, this "spirit" as the "Greek spirit" would bestow upon the Western world its distinctive identity [48] with the aid of Hellenistic models [47] (Steve Mathe, 1995, in The Ides of Chanukah and Twilight Zone of Time ).

Rabbi Jeff Forsyth (in Hashkofa, 2000) also writes that those who advocate the equality and validity of all ideologies claim democracy and argue that there are no absolute truths, it should be remembered that democracy is a Greek idea . About 2,200 years ago, the Greeks attempted to overthrow the Torah and close the Temple in Jerusalem.

Society and values ​​are crumbling at the moment are clearly crumbling. Absolute truths would no longer exist. However, God knows more about reality than dead Greeks, despite Europeans and Americans adhering to their inanimate values.


The Exile Under Edom-Rome

Finally came the angel Sammael of Edom-Rome. This angel kept climbing. Jacob asked God if this exile would never end. God assured Jacob that even if Edom-Rome reached the stars with his army, God would throw him down (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998). The influence of Edom's spirit was to peak under the rule of Emperor Justian I [49], 527-565 CE (Steve Mathe, 1995).

According to Weinbach, 1995, Daniel's views could clarify this dream. Although Edom's kingship refers to the last of the four world empires (Daniel 4-5), Rome no longer exists as a world power. But Rome's legacy of Western Civilization now rules the world. When the rabbis claim that the kingship of the Messiah will rise in the context of Western civilization, it symbolizes the heel of Esau. This means the spiritual failure and moral bankruptcy of that civilization, which would catalyze the coming of the Messiah (Beresheit 25:26).


The end of the fourth exile

When will the fourth exile end. This will happen at the coming of the Messiah.

An article by Assembley of Masorti Synagogues in Britain, 2000, states that the Zohar predicts that at the end of time God will cause Israel to return to the Holy Land. He will gather Israel from exile. The end of time does not refer to the Messianic era, but the end of exile. A period in which terrible and devastating moments for the Jewish people will occur.

Before the coming, Seir, the Yezer ha-Ra (the evil inclination) and the wicked kingdom of Rome will be removed (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel [50] of Prague (1525-1609) predicted that the realization of a secular Jewish state would prepare for the coming of the Messiah.

He claims that the coming of the Messiah is not a sudden event, but a trial [51]. According to the rabbi, the Midrash says that the kingdom of Edom-Rome will initiate a new kingdom, namely the Kingship of the Messiah.

But it also means that the kingdom of Israel is undergoing development [52]. It can be compared to a fruit that grows in a husk. When the fruit is ripe, the husk falls off. The kingdom of Israel originates and grows in the kingship of the nations. When Israel has reached full maturity, the nations will be removed. The Messianic revolution [53] will take place in the hearts and minds of the people.


Then we see:

- The victory of spirituality over materialism [54];

- True to God instead of self-confidence;

- An awareness of Divine Providence instead of the belief in blind chance.


Rabbi Jeff Forsyth (2000, in Hashkofa) writes that in the last quarter of the last century the sun started to shine over Judaism. Studying the Torah, including observance and institution-building, is now seen unparalleled worldwide. Currently, there are more Jews who want to live according to Torah than Nazi members, members of the Roman Senate and Greek philosophers who came up with the idea of ​​democracy. The angel of Esau will finally see that he will not be able to defeat Jacob.


Isodore Epstein (1965) writes that according to Talmud Judaism the kingdom of God will be ushered in by the coming of the Messiah. According to Jewish teaching, the Messiah would be neither a supernatural nor a divine being who forgives sins and is not equated with God. He will make sure to bring Israel back to the old homeland. From a restored Israel He will bring about the moral and spiritual regeneration of all mankind, thereby making all the children of men worthy citizens of the kingdom of God. Then the lordship of the lord will be universal.

The kingdom of God in its Messianic framework and fulfillment on earth is only a prelude to the consummation of the empire in the superhistoric and supernatural world that will one day enter [56]. A rich man, in the words of the Talmudic scholars, who according to Isaiah 64.3 no ear has ever heard and no eye has ever beheld.


8. The four kingdoms and the throne of Solomon

Israel as a nation would spring from Solomon, because God allowed him to build the Temple (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998).

Solomon attempted to centralize state power in Jerusalem. Following the Egyptian and Mesopotamian examples, Solomon divided his empire into twelve districts. He also no longer took into account the former tribal borders. From a political-historical point of view, the kingship under Solomon took on a different meaning. Unlike his father, he made sacrifices and blessed his people. So he also fulfilled pronounced priestly functions. Solomon was not dependent on prophets for divine messages. So he could come into direct contact with God himself. (All Biblical Persons, in Reader's Digest, 1995).

Ginzberg (Volume 6, 1998) states that the "four kingdoms" each (temporarily) had the throne of Solomon. The throne was the symbol of "Cosmocratia". Nebuchadnezzar is said to have ascended the throne and then Cyrus [57]. Ahasuerus was not allowed to do this because he would not have been a "Cosmocrator" like the first two. The rule of the Medes and Persians would have been the consequence of the victory by the guardian angel Dobiel of the Medes and Persians over Gabriel [58].

Alexander the Macedonian is said to have brought Solomon's throne to Egypt after the conquest of Babylon. He would not have made any attempt to ascend the throne because of his great wisdom. The throne would eventually be brought to Rome. These "four kingdoms" are said to have each held Solomon's throne during their reign. This throne was the symbol of "Cosmocratia".


9 Relations Esau, Edom, Babel, Rome, Christianity and the West


9.1 Obadja

Rabbi Yaakov Asher Sinclair writes (in Torah Weekly, Vayishlah, 12/13, 1997) that Obadiah's book is least in the Tanach. Obadiah had converted from Judaism to Edom. Esau is said to have lived between two tzadkim (righteous). These were Isaac and Rebekah, but he was unable to learn from them.

Obadiah lived between the wicked Ahab and Jezebel. Yet he remained a tzadik. His prophecy against Edom follows different periods of history hitherto and the possible coming of the Messiah.

Jewish legends would understand Rome as the personification of Edom. According to Sinclair, there is no historical information of an actual relationship through descent. But if the inner core of Rome is considered, it shows the most brilliant realization of the Esau / Edom principle. Esau was a hunter not only with his bow and arrow but also with his "mouth". He would feign innocence for the purpose of entangling others in his net. His father prophesied that he would live by his sword (Genesis 27:40).

Rome was a society of the sword, military prowess and strength. Finally, Rome crumbled. This is because the pillars of its foundation of deception and power can never be the basis for a long-lasting civilization. Rome has always been an irreconcilable enemy of Israel. Israel's mission is to propagate the God-given principles of justice, brotherly love and morality through the ages.


Rabbi Jeff Forsythe (2000, in Hashkofa) claims that the most amazing thing in the Midrash about Edom Rome would be from who Obadja had been. Being an Edomite converted to the Jewish faith, he knew "inside" the evil, arrogance and emptiness of Edom. He was uniquely equipped to understand and teach about the possible downfall that would come over Rome. Western civilization appears to be supreme. She thinks she has an answer for everything. She flies high in the sky (even up to the stars in space). This does not mean anything. God himself will survive and collapse Esau's society. He will establish Jacob's society, which is to be loyal to the Torah. God says "do not be afraid, my servant Jacob (Jeremiah 30:10).


9.2 The relationship Edom and Babel

Genesis 27: 39-40 and Jubilees 26:34 state, among other things, that Esau will live by his sword and serve his brother. And when you exert yourself vigorously and become great [59] then you will throw off the yoke. Esau married two Caanite women, who were torment of the spirit to Rebekah and Jacob (Genesis, 26: 34-35).

Michael Boaz Israel ben-Abraham (Warder Cresson), 1852, in Orgin of Edom, Babylon, and Rome, or Christianity, quotes Psalm 137: 7-8. It says that the Edomites said, "tear down the temple to the ground." You (Edom) daughter of Babel etc. According to Ben-Abraham we see here that Edom and Babylon [60] would be a synonym.

Edom would later be conquered by Albian the king of Kittim [61]. Kittim [62] is considered here as a location or area close to later Rome.


Furthermore, the well-known Jewish rabbis and scholars such as Kimchie, Aben-Ezra, Maimonides and Ababanel would claim that all Gentile Christians would be the seed or children of Esau or Edom. The prophets would prophesy not only against the land of Edom, but also against the children of Kittim (Michael Israel ben-Abraham (Walter Cresson), 1825).

Also, according to ben-Abraham (Walter Cresson), 1825, in "The True Mother", or Church, Babylon and Rome are synonymous (Peter 1:13).


9.3 Geography, Kittim and Zepho king of Kittim



Meir Bar-Ilan (1990) in his commentary on the book The Date of the Words of Gad The Sheer) writes that verse 78 of this book contains a sentence of "Woe to you, oh, Edom who is in the land of Kittim in north of the day ". This verse clearly reflects Numbers 21:29 and 24:23. The consequence of this is that the use of Kittim would identify with Edom, probably Rome.

Ian Hutchesson (1998 in History and Religion) claims that until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls Kittim [63] was considered Cyprus.

The Pentateuch states that Josphus identifies Kittim [64] with Cyprus, while Targum identifies Kittim with Italy and the Romans.



Zepho a grandson of Esau is said to have been king of Kittim in Italy (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998). Zepho is said to have fled from Egypt to Africa (Carthage). Then he would become king of Kittim. Ginzberg, 1998, states that Kittim means Italy. This would point to the ancient tradition of Rome's identity with that of Edom, in that Zepho would become Esau-Edom's clay son the first king of Italy. Zepho is said to have established the first kingdom of Rome [66]. He would be killed in a war with Tiranus king of Elisha. When Esau received the report of Zepho's death, he would join his son Eliphaz (who had settled with Zepho) (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

Project Gutenberg (1998) states that a war later arose between King Hadad of Edom and Abimenos of Kittim. Aqbimenos would win, however, so that Edom became a province of Kittim.


In the 6th century AD. the Nabatheans would drive the Edomites to Idumea. The Greeks and Romans would later conquer the area around Borzah and Petra in Edom (Louis Bourbon, in Petra, Yama, Bookschop, Aquuba, 1999).


9.4 Esau is Rome, symbols and culture

The symbol Esau is Rome as a boar is common in rabbinic literature. Reference is made to the standard of the Roman legions stationed in Palestine. The emblems were a bear and a wild boar. Hence the expression the boar Rome (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

The boar would be called CHAZIR, which would mean "HE WHO RETURNS. The boar will return kosher, as a ruminant, [67] at the end time. Chazir would refer to the accuser of Israel, the angel Charziel. defender of Israel (Germany?) The boar is thus the symbol of Edom, the greedy descendants of Rome, who present split hooves (outward signs of civilization and holiness), possibly returning the spiritual kingship to Israel. The boar is thus a symbol of a pre-genetic period (The Weekly Torah Reading, in The Jerusalem Jewish Voice), which also states that the persecution among the Ishmaelites has been less severe than that of Christianity (in the name of the Prince of Peace) However, both are only daughter believers, who claimed that God would have adjusted His Purpose toward his Torah and His People.

Even early Tannaite sources would use Amalek as an expression for Rome. In legend, Amalek would despise the Abrahamic covenant that would characterize the attitude of the Romans. This would apply especially during the persecutions under Hadrian. In later literature, Amalek and Rome are a symbol of Christianity. In Kabllah: Amalek is Sammael's evil inclination. Other rabbinic sources symbolize Amalek is Rome.


Hence the reference to the destruction of the Temple by Rome compared to that of the destruction of the first Temple [69].

Haman in the Medical-Persian exile was an enemy of the Jews. This also applied in the Roman period to Pilate, Herod and Nero and Hitler in World War II (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998).

David Richter, on Midrash and Mashall, Difficulty (in the Blessing of Esau, 1998). If Esau lives off his sword, he must be a robber and cannot be a farmer. Richter quotes Rashi, who claims that the process of Edom's allegorical connection with Rome has a historically complex character. The direct link between Edom and Rome is said to be under Roman rule by the Edomite family of Herod. There is also a relationship between Edom and Rome about the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians in 587 BC. and the Second Temple by the Romans 70 AD. Then, because Rome itself is a metonymy [70] for the Roman Catholic Church, Esau became responsible for the persecution of the Jews in the Middle Ages.

Ginzberg (Volume 6, 1998) mentions that the use of the names Esau, Seir, Edom, which describe Rome, has been around for a long time. This probably corresponded to the time of Herod, who had been appointed by the masters to the Romans as king. When Rome accepted Christianity, the same symbol was attributed to the Christians. Edom for Rome is often seen in Talmudic and Midrash literature. But this expression is said to have rarely been found in Taanite literature. In this literature 100 AD. talked about Amalek as a symbol for Rome.

Solomon Schechter (in Rabbinic Theology, 1961) claims that the contrast between the kingdom of God and that of the kingdom of Rome suggests that bad government is incompatible with the (invisible) kingdom of God. This is not about the form of the Roman Government, but about its methods of administration and its oppressive government [71]. The rabbis at the time saw in desperation a government whose authority was derived from the deification of power. The emperor was an incarnated principle of this. Edom claims that it does not recognize a superior authority. Edom would say, "Who have I in heaven".

Rabbi Jeff Forsyth (2000, in Hashkofa) writes that the symbol of many nations is an eagle. This would symbolize mighty and "flying high". He points to the aforementioned prophet Obadiah [72] in section 10.2. Today, these nations have such technology that they reach the stars. They could become arrogant as a result. However, God Himself will collapse the nations that bring evil. Only the Gentile nations loyal to His People will be saved.


10 The explanations for Sammaël

Sammaël is seen as the guardian angel of Esau, Edom and Rome (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998). Sammaël is also considered to be the hindrance [73]. His name is declared: there is a name of god, one of the 72 names that Saël would read. When MEM [74] (meaning earthly time [75]) comes into this name, Sael changes into Sammaël (F. Weinreb, 1991, in the image of man in Kabbalah).

In Hebrew literature (3 Enoch, Kabbalah and Zohar) and Sophy Burnham, (1990) in a book of angels, Sammaël is a name for Satan.

He is said to be the prince of the demons (2 Enoch). Another explanation is that he is a prosecutor. He is said to be the leader of the fallen angels. In 3 Enoch he is called the prince of Rome par excellence Israel. He would be greater than all the princes of the kingdoms on high (Pieter van der Horst, 1998, in the book of heavenly palaces).

In the Zohar, Sammael [76] is the dark angel who wrestled with Jacob at Peniel.

Sammaël is considered to be an angel who can be both good and evil. He is said to be one of the greatest minds operating in heaven, on earth and in hell. According to Jewish tradition, he would have been placed in heaven in the fifth and one of the seven regents over 2 million angels. He is also the angel of poison and death (Genesis 3: 6).

In Kabbalah and Sophie Burnham (1990), Sammaël corresponds to Geburah and the planet Mars. It will be clear that Satan and Sammael are interchangeable. Sammaël is also the symbol of the accuser and tester of the creation of God, as with Abraham and Job. It was Sammaël (also a relationship with Satan) who seduced Eve into sin.


In the various works of Kabbalah, Sammael, the angel of Esau, is said to resemble a goat. Therefore, Sammaël would choose the people of Seir (is Sair). Perhaps the hair of the angel of Edom would match the wool of a goat. In another rabbinical source [78] the angel of Edom would flee to Borzah. However, the angel would make three mistakes.

Alfred Edersheim (1883, in The Life of Jesus the Messiah) claims that the rabbis are the devil: as Satan (also called Sammael), as the Yetser haRa or the evil impulse and the Angel of Death, in other words the Accuser, Tempter and It is considered more punishable. Sammael, however, would not have absolute power.


In Short Encyclopedia (Nol Drek, 1997) Sammaël "Poison" reads The angel of death who brought mortality into the world, Fallen angel of Rome, The Dark Angel, A fallen seraph, Appears as a big snake with 12 wings.


David Geenley (in Missionology: an International Review, 1994) writes [80] about Territorial Spirits that Deutero-Canonical Works would show that the "concept of the national angels" (corresponding to the territorial powers at the national level) was present in second century BC Judaism. Dubbiel or Dobiel is the angel of Persia. Sammaël [81], sometimes called the Angel of Death, is associated with Edom and later Rome, the arch enemies of Israel


10.1 Hierarchy of angels

Several angel groups are mentioned in the Bible. These groups include cherubim, seraphims, archangels, powers, forces, governments, rulerships and thrones [82].

In the Zohar (Ernst Müller, 1984) it says: then He established angelic groups at the service of the throne: angels, Ar'elim, sepharim, animal beings, ofanim, chasmalim, elim, elohim, sons of elohim and individuality.

Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) claims that there are for example angels of the waters, the mountains, the deserts, the sun, Paradise, the stars, angels of kingdoms etc. There would be seven heavens each with a leader. When God appeared on Sinai, He would have been accompanied by 22,000 angels. According to Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998), Sammaël would stay in seventh heaven.


Dionysius [83] de Pseudo-Aeropgiet would draw up another angel hierarchy [84] from this (Jane Howard, 1995, in Contact with angels and in The Archangels, Greek Orthodox Archidiose of Austria, 1999). He took the names from the Old Testament and Ephesians and Colossians. The hierarchy is again divided into three sub-hierarchies.

1. The first hierarchy [85] consists of the seraphim, cherubim and thrones.

2. The second [86] is composed of dominions, powers and powers.

3. The third [87] is divided into governments, archangels and angels.


The powers must prevent demons from overthrowing the world. It is also possible that they are in charge of the demons. According to Paul, they could even be evil angels.

Their leader is Sammaël or Camaël. Governments protect nations or religions (Melissa Ann Miranda in the Hierarchy of Angels, 1999 and Sophy Burnham in the Book of Angels, 1990). According to Ephesians 6:12 and Colossians 1:16, the powers and angels over the nations could be good or evil (J. Hampton, Keatlley III, 1998, in Biblical Studies Press).


10.2 Sammaël, Camaël, Chamuël

In different sources, different names are mentioned for the angel of Mars. These are Sammaël, Camaël and Chamuël. Jewish sources, including in Enoch and described in the previous chapters, state that Sammaël struggled with Jacob and who is also the angel of Edom and Rome. It would also have a light and dark side.

In later sources such as Pseudo-Dionyssius, in the Book of the Hierarchy of the Blessed , we see besides the name Sammaël also the names Camel and Chamuel occur. In the tenth century, the archangel Uriel was to be replaced by Samaël (in Mark O. Garrison, 1995).


Sophie Burnham (1990, in A Book of Angels) calls that of the seven archangels, four keep a constant name. These are Raphael, Michael, Gabriel and Uriel. The others that come from Jewish and popular traditions are: Simiel, Orphiel, and Zechariel. The latter is sometimes referred to as Chamuel, Jophiel, and Zadkiel.

In the Kabbalah, Sandalphon, Sammaël (as an angel of evil and related to the planet Mars), are called Zaphkiel, Raphael, Gabriel, Michael. They are in a hierarchy, like a tree. At the top of the top is Metatron the Angel of the Lord.


The Talismnic Magic mentions Zaphkiel, Zadkiel, Camel, Raphael, Haniel, Michael, and Gabriel (The Seven archangels in Sarah's Archangels, [88] Angels A to Z, 1996).


Melissa Ann Miranda [89] (in Southwestern Literature, 1999) presents Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Anaël, Samael, Sachiel and Cassiel as the seven archangels.


In the sixth and seventh books of Moses, Camel is called the angel of Mars. In the key of Solomon is the name Khamël. Cornelius Agrippa has the name Camaël [90].


Angelic Artistry (1998 in Sarah's Archangels in The Seven Archangels [91]) contains information about the archangel Camaël. Camel is also known by the names of Chamuel, Kemuel [92], Shemuel, Camiel, Khamael. Camaël would be dressed in red as a watchman. In the Druid mythology, Camael was the god of war. His name means He Who sees God. He is traditionally regarded as the leader of the Powers and ruler of the planet Mars. In the Kabbalistic traditions, he is considered one of the archangels.

Carla Clement, 1898 in her book "Angels in Art" considers Camaël to be the angel who wrestled with Jacob and who also assisted Jesus with Gabriel [93] during His agony in the garden of Gethsemane.

According to legends, Moses would destroy Camael because he tried to prevent Moses from receiving the Law of God.

The Heavenly Hierarchy (1998) states that Camaël would navigate between good and evil. Seen from the light side, he would be one of the most favored archangels in God's presence. From the dark side, Camael would function as the Duke of Hell and in the occult as the ruler of the evil planet Mars.


Connie Chronister (2000), names Camaël as an angel who co-directs the angels of destruction [94]. He is said to be a leading angel of command in the rank of the Powers. Yet he would also be referred to as a dark angel wrestling with Jacob, although Metatron and Michael are also mentioned for this.


Matthew Bunsen, 1996, in Angels A to Z and Malcom Godwin) [95] (1997) in website by Cherub, mention Chamuel, who is also identified as Camel. Chamuel is said to be one of the leaders of the Powers with the same rank as Gabriel or Satan before his fall. He would have tried to stop Moses from receiving the Law. It is possible that the "destruction" of Moses by Moses would mean his loss of grace. He would now be one of the highest placed persons in hell. But most investigators place Chamuel as one of the seven archangels in the seventh heaven who pray for Israel.


Hebraic (1999) presents the name Camaël as the archangel of the Divine austerity, like Samaël. In fact, both names apply to an angel. Classical Kabbalah presents Samael as the leader of the Seraphim, but modern Kabbalah replaced this name with Khamaël. So it would be the same angel with Sammaël and Khamuël.


In a composition by I. Marc Carlson (1998), he describes several Celtic Pantheons. Here the name Camulos appears. Camulos is a British-Belgian or French / Gaul-Belgian god of war. He also mentions Samaël / Sammaël. This name might be used as a metaphor for spiritual powers such as Samazia, Satan, Diabolus, Devil, Apollyon, the Angel of Death and the Poison. He would rule over the spirits of Europe and America.


11 Evaluation and conclusions

It has been explained above that in Jewish meta-history a link is made between historical facts on earth and the influence of spiritual or supernatural powers on the historical process. There would be indications of this in both the Old Testament and the New Testament. Angelic princes are said to be over nations, nations, etc. These angelic princes are under the authority of the Most High God. Examples of angel princes mentioned in the book of Daniel are those of Israel, Persia and Greece. Calvin (1977) also states in his Institution that certain Angels are ordained and destined as governors of kingdoms and landscapes. There are said to have been or have been about 70 guardian angels of nations. These angels are not absolutely  good (Job 4: 18-19). There would also be angels wandering. The Bible mentions the guardian angels or angelic princes of Media-Persia, Greece and Israel. Only Michael is explicitly referred to in the Bible as the angelic prince of Israel. In the non-canonical and aforementioned literature, Dobiel, the guardian angel of Media-Persia, Uzziel is the guardian angel of Egypt, and Kal is the guardian angel of Babylonia and Sammael the angelic prince of Edom-Rome. Most angelic princes would resist Israel. The angelic princes and possibly their nations with their culture are condemned if they do not act according to God's purposes.

Alice Woutersen-van Weerden [96] (1965) mentions Odin as the overarching popular spirit of all Germanic peoples. Odin is said to have been the founder of these peoples and gave these peoples their language. Among the nations were Longobards, Saxons, Frisians, Vandals and Franks. These peoples also got their own folk spirit under the All-Father Odin.

Thor Heyerdal (in Algemeen Dagblad, October 14, 2000) claims that in the sagas of Snorri Sturluson [97] in the early 13th century. would say that the famous Viking god Odin fled to Northern Europe for the Romans from the Caucasus. The Viking god Odin is said to have had large areas in the past, which is now Turkey. These were areas the Romans wanted to occupy (T. Byrn, Norse god Odin and the Norse poem Havamal, 2000).

Thor Heyerdal states that there is something wrong in our society. This is the only society where religion does exist, but where people do not believe [98].


Summarizing a visible reality that is connected to an invisible reality. An invisible world that cannot be factually proven with rational methods.


The questions were:

1. How is the contrast between Esau and Jacob explained in the Jewish tradition?

2. Why is Esau Edom-Rome?

3. Who is the Angelic Prince of Rome?

4. What is this contradiction in history?


The contrast between Jacob and Esau is a Jewish explanation of world history. This is a process of a spiritual battle between the values ​​of Jacob and Esau. Jacob would imply the values ​​of a redeemed world, while Esau is a prototype of peoples who start from the existing and fallen world and want to maintain them. Jacob's redeemed world is endless. The unsaved world of Esau is subject to wear and finite.

Jacob's values ​​are justice and humanity, according to the Torah. Esau's values ​​are power, dominion over others, political systems, submission and (expansion) possession. 


Jacob would symbolize Israel. The Esau principle would be most strongly seen in Edom-Rome. Edom means red and Esau was the ancestor of the Edomites. In all peoples and also in the Jewish people themselves, the principle of Esau would occur. However, according to the rabbinic tradition, this principle would be most strongly represented in Edom, Rome and the resulting political and religious systems. Examples are the persecutions of the Romans, the Inquisition and Nazi Germany, anti-Semitism and the replacement theology of the churches.

Herod is also said to be an indication of the connection between Edom and Rome.

Israel would historically face four exiles from world empires under different angelic monarchs. The exile under Edom-Rome would last the longest. From this captivity, salvation would arise and the Messiah would appear. These empires each had their own angelic prince. The angelic prince of Edom-Rome would be the greatest of these.

Whether Esau and his grandson Zepho would have been in Italy cannot be said with certainty. The same goes for about Kittim's interpretation.


Jacob is said to have fought with the angel of Esau. This is to make possible the redemption of the world and the kingdom of God. He therefore had to wrestle the blessing in Sammael's possession. Sammaël had received this after the fall. Later Jacob was still blessed by God himself. However, other (Jewish) sources claim that Jacob was that the angel Jacob was struggling with was Michael.


According to Jewish and rabbinic literature, the angelic prince of Rome is said to be Sammael.

Sammaël would be symbolized with the red planet Mars. Mars is the god of war of the Romans. In later literature, sources appear called Chamuel, Khemuel, Camel. Camaël was considered a god of war for the Celts. The common of the aforementioned sources is that both Sammaël, Chamuël and Camaël fought with Jacob. This angel would have had a good and an evil side. The question is when does the name Chamuel or Camael arise.

Repeated again, Ivan Lewis (in Hebraic Perspective Forum Archive, 1999) writes that the Talmud states that Samael is the guardian angel of Esau and in Sotah 10b as the sar (angelic prince) of Edom. Rabbi Eliezer's Proverbs said that he would have seduced Eve and be Cain's father. He would be both good and evil but carries out the commands of God! He is the severity of God's righteousness and is compared to the Gevurah (righteousness) of the Sefirot of Kaballah. Sammaël also has other names such as the angel of death and the prince of the demons. So there is no clear description of what Sammael really is. Perhaps he is an angel who is placed from high angelic spheres into lower (earthly) spheres (powers).

Another possibility is, according to De Graaff (1987), that this name is also given to the demon as a connection between gods and people. In this situation between the angelic prince of Edom-Rome and its inhabitants. In addition to the angelic prince, there would be a daimonion that would become increasingly influential. These would be smooth transitions.


The contradictions of the values ​​can be seen in history during the exiles. Israel, as a chosen people, had the task of serving instead of ruling mankind, and to be a people of priests and saints. As a 'kingdom of priests', Israel was to serve mankind, while as a 'holy people' it was to follow a special way of life (according to the Torah). It would be a people of its own nature and different from all other peoples. Israel, however, would lose weight and go into exile (Isodore Epstein, 1965). Throughout history, there has been an ongoing battle for Jerusalem that continues in the present.

Several realms during or outside of exile with the principle of Esau have tried to destroy, persecute, or assimilate Israel with their values. Examples are the Edomites, the Romans, the churches, the pogroms in Russia, the Nazis and Jews who no longer acted according to the Torah and their universal mission. The last exile under Edom-Rome is said to be at an end. During the time of Jesus many Jews also lived outside Israel, such as Alexandria in Egypt. The State of Israel is established. According to Rabbi Loew ben Bazalel, this state would be a preparation for the Messiah and the kingdom of God. A kingdom of God that, according to Epstein, will be established on earth under divine guidance and by the hands of man. According to Judaism, this kingdom of God will be ushered in by the coming of the Messiah. The Messiah will bring justice, peace and prosperity to the earth and will make all human children become worthy citizens of the kingdom of God. But the kingdom of God is only a prelude to the consummation of the empire in the superhistoric and supernatural world, which will one day enter. A world that "has never heard an ear, nor seen an eye" (Isaiah 64: 3). Connected to this world is the resurrection of the dead and the general day of judgment. A super-historical and supernatural world order as a result of the divine destiny, which is also shared by other religions (Epstein, 1965).


Consulted literature

Abraham-ben Michael Boaz (Warder Cresson), Origin of Edom, Babylon, and Rome, or Christianity, 1852.

Abraham-ben Michael Boaz (Warder Cresson), The "True Mother," Or Church, 1852.

Bar-Illan, Meir, The Date of the Words of Gad The Sheer, November, 1997.

Bell, Rabbi, The Weekly Torah Portion, a selection of Midrash and Talmud, 1996.

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[1] For more information, see the book of Genesis.

[2] Ginzberg, 1998, lists rabbinic sources. To use this, see the chapter Preface in volume five.

[3] His book is considered one of the highest peaks of Russian spirituality in the 20th century.

[4] Andreev testifies of his own illuminations. They appeared in 1921, 1928, 1932, 1933, 1943 and regularly during his imprisonment from 1950-1953. During his mystical journeys through different worlds, he is said to have been guided by the greatest minds ever to exist in Russia. He could not see them, but would have been able to speak to them. He heard their words coming from the bottom of his own heart.

[5] Andreev cites Olympus, Sinai and Kitezh as examples of Greek, Jewish and Russian metaculture.

[6] According to the Septuagint and a Hebrew fragment found at Qumran refers to the sons of God rather than the sons of Israel. Sons of God points to the concept that different nations have their own guardian angel (Sidney, H.T. Page, 1995).

[7] There are several explanations according to Sidney H.T Page in Powers of Evil, 1995, for Psalm 82. One explanation is that the gods are judges (Exodus 21: 6, 22: 8-9, etc.). This would also be confirmed according to John 10: 34-36. However, it can be objected that Jesus means angels with the gods. Psalm 82 is said to have a relationship with the sons of God in the book of Job and more texts such as in Proverbs 14:31, Jeremiah 22: 3 etc. indicate according to Page that the gods in Psalm 82 are supernatural beings.

[8] There would be a dialogue between God and Sammael about Israel worshiping idols in Egypt. According to the first sources, Sammael would change to Rahab.

[9] There is also a Jewish legend that the evil spirit Abezi-thibod, who fought magic against Moses in Egypt and hardened the heart of Pharaoh, was also cast into the Red Sea (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998).

[10] Maimonides was in awe of Aristotle, whom he regarded after the prophets as the highest representative of what human intellect could achieve. He tried in Aristotle's philosophy that he sought to find a rational explanation for the Jewish faith and tradition. His predecessors considered the doctrine of creation as a religious issue. Maimonides was the first to place this issue outside the field of religion (Epstein, 1965).

[11] Project Gutenberg states that Satan, in the form of the serpent, seduced Eve. As a result, Cain was the ancestor of all the wicked generations who rebelled against God. Cain is said to come from Satan, who is the angel Sammael. Sammaël revealed himself to Eve in his seraphic appearance. After his birth, Eve exclaimed: I have obtained a man through the Angel of the Lord. Adam would not be with her during Eve's pregnancy. Furthermore, Ginzberg (Volume 5, 1998) states that Cain was the spiritual son of Satan. This because Eve had listened to him.

[12] According to Baruch Crowley (1999) there have been civilizations for Adam. He quotes Psalm 105: 8, which says: He forever remembers His covenant - the word He commanded a thousand generations. The Talmud reveals that this verse refers to God's law, the Torah, which was given to Moses after the course of 1,000 human generations. The 26th generation is said to exist in the time of Moses. This would then indicate 974 generations to Adam. Baruch Crowley cites another important text as possible evidence. In Genesis 36: 31-39 it says: And these were the kings who reigned over the land of Edom, before a king reigned over the Israelites. Because Adam is considered the first king of Israel according to Kabbalah, the hidden Kabbalistic explanation explains the existence of the previous worlds. The eighth king meant Adam who represented the world today. In Kabbalah, the world of the Edomite kings is pre Adam. The world is known as Olam Ha Tohu (the world of emptiness or chaos, which refers to the beginning of the Bible).

[13] According to a rabbinical source, Satan was jealous. He wanted a different world where he was above the people and a throne on the same level as that of God. Therefore, he and his angels were cast into a lower heavenly sphere. Jewish researchers also point to Ps. 82 verse 7, before the fall of Satan and his angels (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[14] Before their fall, they would be dressed in light-shining cloaks (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[10] 10 years before Noah's death, the number of people would have increased to millions.

[16] Perhaps this is an indication that the divine or spiritual world was then even closer to the earth.

[17] See also Genesis 25: 19-34.

[18] Jacobs (is Israel) guardian angel would be stronger than Sammaël the guardian angel of Esau (is Rome). Despite Rebekah wishing for more children, Esau's rage in her lap would cause her to stop having children (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[19] In Ginzberg reference is made to Luke 1:41. It says that when Elisabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child sprang up in her lap. She was filled with the Holy Spirit and she proclaimed etc. God would make known when the future actions of both the righteous and the wicked, if they are still in the womb (Ginzberg, volume 5, 1998).

[20] Some rabbinic sources state that Jacob helped Esau. Jacob knew that Nimrod was invulnerable as long as he wore Adam's cloaks. Jacob advised his brother not to fight until his opponent had taken off his magical cloaks (Ginzberg, volume 5, 1998).

[21] Sammael is considered in Jewish sources to be the head of all Satans (the greatest of all angels). But there are also sources that distinguish Satan from Sammael, the prince of Rome. It is noteworthy that the angels are solely responsible for natural phenomena and heavenly bodies. It is strange that Michael is not among them and all stars are assigned to an angel. Other rabbinic sources state that the seven planets are assigned to angels. The sun has Raphael, Venus, Aniel, Mercury, Michael, the moon, Gabriel, Saturn, Chaffiel, Jupiter, Zadkiel, Mars, Sammaël (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[22] The Torah reports that the angel of Esau begins a wrestling period with Jacob. The fact that Esau had an angel who bonded with Jacob and God incorporated it into the Torah shows that Esau is a tremendous force.

[23] A Torah insight into the Holocaust, angry actions and disputes. The material is from Rabbi Avraham Asher Zimmerman a highly regarded Torah scholar.

[24] Reference is made to Handbook of Jewish Thought 4:29.

[25] Named Targum Yonathan; Tanchuma.

[26] All adversity Jacob endures means a test of God. Through history, God confronts Israel with testing through other nations. When God sends the non-Jewish peoples, He looks, for example, who will or will not assimilate (Rabbi Jeff, Forsyth, 2000).

[27] Jacob was blessed by God at Bethel both when he came to and left Padan-Aram (Genesis 28: 13-16 and Genesis 35: 9-15).

[28] See Genesis 28: 3.

[29] See Genesis 32: 24-32.

[30] According to Isodore Epstein (1965), the ultimate goal of the Messiah is to replace the present which is governed by replacing the senses - lust and greed - with a social order that through justice in knowledge and deeds a new earth and a new heaven will produce. Israel's national calling is not an end in itself. It is in the service of a universal human vocation regarding the conversion of all nations and their united service to God.

[31] Israel is dispersed in and vulnerable to hostile nations and cultures.

[32] According to Rabbi Shlomo in Parshat Vayishlach, 1996, Esau is the sincere child of Cain. He would represent the physical and the aggressive. He would be rough, a hunter, a man of the fields and well-spoken. He is called Edom because of his physical color, not only of his taste with regard to the red. Esau was already reddish in color entirely like a hair cloak (Genesis 29:25).

[33] According to Hirsch in his commentary on Genesis 25:30, this shows the reason Esau called himself Edom. He would have been delighted to see a fatally bleeding victim.

[34] Hashkofa: Torah Views, 2000, Rabbi Jeff Fosythe, states that Esau and his archangel and the society and religion descended from it present themselves as legal and real. They also consider Judaism to be unreal.

[35] Kurtz-Lendner gives his interpretation of the Midrash.

[36] Edom is not yet fit for the covenant. This belongs to Israel. However, there will come a time when Esau-Edom-Rome will share in the covenant. The reason is because he is also a son of Isaac.

[37] It will especially torment Israel.

[38] God cannot take away what he has promised to Jacob-Israel.

[39] Reference is made to Pirkey Rabbi Eliezer 38; Rashi; cf. Bereshith Rabbah 83. There are also traditions that Zepho (clay son of Esau) is said to have founded Rome or settled in the area around Rome.

[40] The second exile is under the chief Iram. The Midrash (Bereshit Rabba 83: 4) mentions that his name is an expression of "he who is destined to collect treasures for the Messiah". In the second part, Rome will no longer oppress Israel. Rome will even assist the Messiah. Rome will even be transformed to realize His holy name. Romi is the expression of the exaltation of holiness.

[41] Megillas Ester was written in the second exile.

[42] This is a Jewish source. In other sources, Ahura-Mazda is the supreme god of Media and Persia.

[43] He is said to be a descendant of Amalek the son of Eliphaz.

[44] Chanukah would serve as an introduction and preparation for the future Redemption. This is the transformation from dark to light. In Chanukah, survival tactics are said to have been handed down to the Jewish people with the aim of resisting the exile Edom (Steve Mathe, 1995, in the Ides of Chanukah and the Twilight Zone of Time).

[45] His empire was divided between three generals. The rule over Egypt and Palestine of the Ptolemaic under Ptolemaic, over Syria, Babylonia and Asia Minor, etc. by the Selucids under Selecus, and over Macedonia under Antigones, Antigones. Later, wars between the Ptolemy and Selucidians would put palestine under the Selucid (De Blois and Van der Spek, 1992 and Isodore Epstein, 1965).

[46] According to Isodore Epstein (1965), the most dangerous thing for Judaism was that Antiochus was assisted by two treacherous high priests. These were Jason and Menelaus. In addition, the wealthy and wealthy were not averse to Hellenism, which they believed would bring peace and privilege.

[47] Plato and Aristotle's contributions influenced the way of Western thinking.

[48] ​​These intellectual achievements are not in themselves evil. They are the fruits of the command in Genesis 2:15 to work the earth. Yet these respected ideals of Greek philosophy had a hidden contrast to the Torah. After Greek political power, this spirit would pass into and be taken over by the Roman Empire. The power structure of this empire imposed Greek culture and its ideals on its subjects. The rabbis perceived the essence of this "mission" of Rome as that of Esau / Edom. It is said to have been masked in the civilization of a Greek toga (indicating intellectual progress), which Jacob relentlessly persecuted (Steve Mathe, 1995).

[49] He severely limited economic and religious life for the Jews in his empire. He banned the Torah and drafted anti-Jewish laws. This included the mention in the Sh'ma, where the Unity of Gd openly contradicted the Christian doctrine (Steve Matthew, 1995).

[50] He was known as Maharal.

[51] The government of the Messiah will emerge from a rather unholy kingdom.

[52] In the immature period it is still part of the fourth period. Only when Israel attains fullness will the fourth realm be rejected and the holy kingship of the Messiah arise. As long as the Messiah's kingdom is not yet in its perfect condition, it will be attached to Edom's. The holy kingdom of Israel will have to grow out of the unholy kingdom that precedes it.

[53] It does not refer to a political and military event. Neither does the kingship of nations refer to political unity. The bolster refers to the value system of the Western world.

[54] The Messiah resides in Rome. This is because He must be challenged by the Western value system and overcome. So it is correct that the Messianic Kingdom should begin its career as part of Western civilization.

[55] Jacob would remain vigilant and faithful to the Torah.

[56] According to Judaism, the earthly and heavenly are in harmony with each other, the heavenly being seen as the necessary consequence and the necessary continuation of the earthly (Isodore Epstein, 1965).

[57] Cyrus is said to have wept at the destruction of the temple. As a reward for this, his empire gained dominion over the world. he became not only a cosmocrator but was also found worthy to sit on Solomon's throne (excluding Nebuchadnezzar). (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998).

[58] Gabriel is said to have been punished by God for postponing God's punishment against Israel. However, when Javan's guardian angel (Greece) came to rule over Israel, Gabriel's requests to God to soften the Greek yoke for Israel were nil (Ginzberg, Volume 6, 1998).

[59] This refers to the end times (William F. Dankenbring in Triumph Prophetic Mysteries, 2000).

[60] Babylon is the capital of Chaldea. The Assyrian Empire included both sides of the Tigris. The Assyrians along with Syria destroyed Jerusalem. These areas were later part of the Roman Empire. France, Germany, England and America emerged from this empire. Christianity became the official religion in this. Therefore, according to the rabbis, Babylon, Rome, Edom and Christianity are synonymous.

[61] Edom would come under the authority of the children of Kittim. See also, Numbers 24:24, Isaiah 23: 1, 12-13 and Jeremiah 2:10.

[62] Kittim has been compared to Cyprus in other sources.

[63] In Daniel 11:30 it says that the ships of Kittim will come against him. It is probably meant that the ships of the Romans came against Antiochus IV Epiphanes (him) during his last campaign in Egypt. Antiochus was at war with the Jews. The Romans would drive him out, so that the Jews then came under the Romans. It also seems that the Septuagint transformed "the ships of Kittim" into Romans. This would imply that it could be read that the ships of the Romans come to him (Ian Hutchesson, 1998).

[64] Kittim is a son of Yavan and a clay son of Noah. Rabbinic sources identify Kittim with Italy or Rome. Other rabbinic sources and most modern researchers claim that Kittim means the Greek people and most likely the Cypriots (Navigating the Bible, 1995, World ORT Union).

[65] There would have been conflicts between the sons of Esau and Jacob. Zepho was captured by Egypt's sons in Egypt. He escaped to King Agnias the king of Africa and became an army officer.

Zepho would later go to Kittim with an army, where he would eventually become king. Zepho was helped by God during wars, but he was going to behave wickedly. This was similar to the actions of Esau's other sons (Project Gutenberg, 1998 and Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[66] Perhaps Zepho would have founded the city of Rome (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[67] Genetics specialists are currently working on a ruminant boar (in the weekly Torah Reading in The Jerusalem Voice).

[68] Rome had scattered Israel and destroyed the Temple.

[69] For sources, see Ginzberg, Volumes 5 and 6, 1998.

[70] A figure of speech where one word for another is used on the basis of an actual relationship, not on the basis of a comparison, for example gray hair for old age.

[71] The rabbis considered the Roman authority to be corrupt. Esau preaches justice, but shows violence.

[72] Obadiah means servant of God. A name in Hebrew has meaning.

[73] The barrier prevents the redemption of the world.

[74] Mem is Majim is water. As a letter with the value 40 (mem), majim also counts as an expression for time. According to the bible, time is measured by 40, so it is entered with water. Time flows like water. Redemption is therefore fished from water (Weinreb, 1991).

[75] The obstacle brings time into the world. This does not allow an immediate return to paradise.

[76] Other rabbinic sources claim that Michael, Uriel and Metatron struggled with Jacob.

[77] From this statement, a connection is possible with a Muslim legend. It states that the angel of death, Sammael, is in the form of a ram (Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998).

[78] See Ginzberg, Volume 5, 1998.

[79] 1. Sammaël thought that Borzah was a city for refugees. However, this was the city of Bezer. 2. Sammaël assumed that the city of Borzah offered protection to all murderers. However, this only applied to one person who accidentally killed another person. 3. Sammaël assumed that an angel was allowed to flee to cities of refuge after a crime. However, this law only applied to humans.

[80] David Greenlee mentions the possibility of a phenomenological interpretation of territorial spirits. This would mean that the ontological reality can be doubted. When the territorial spirits are no longer worshiped because of their conquest, immigration, the construction of a canal, their legitimacy disappears. The territorial spirits then lose control of the area.

[81] From the first century BC. the Superior of the World was identified with Satan. Names for this were Beliar, Azael or Sammaël (with reference to the Romans). In previous publications this title has been conferred on Michäel (David Greenlee, 1994).

[82] See, for example, Ephesians 3: 9-11 and 6: 11-14, Colossians 1:16, Genesis 3:24, and Ezekiel 1: 1-28.

[83] Dionysius was a Syrian writer on mysticism.

[84] See also Paul's letters in the New Testament.

[85] These are the angels of pure contemplation (Melissa Ann, Miranda, in The Hierarchy of Angels, 1999).

[86] These are the angels of the Cosmos (Melissa Ann, Miranda).

[87] These are the angels of the world (Melisa Ann, Miranda).

[88] Her source is Bunsen Matthew Angels A to Z, Publisher crown trade paperbooks, 1996.

[89] Her sources are Conell, Janice T, angel of Power, Ballantine book: New York, 1995.

         Guiley, Rosemary E, Encyclopedia of Angels.Facts on File, Inc: New York, 1996.

         Long Judith. The Angels of God: Understanding the Bible. New press: new York, 1997.

[90] The dates are unknown. The list was compiled by I. Marc Carlson, 1998.

[91] The sources are from Matthew, Bunsen, Angels A to Z, 1996.

[92] See also Genesis 22: 21-22.

[93] According to Sarah's Archangels, Samuel would assist Jesus with Gabriel.

[94] According to Connie Chronister, this is reported in Jewish sources. She does not mention which sources.

[95] Godwin, Malcolm Angels, New York; Simon and Schuster, 1990.

[96] An important source of hair is Edda, made by the Icelandic writer Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241).

[97] According to Thor Heyerdal, the sagas are wrongly seen outside of Iceland as mythology and not scientific. Established scientists would not take his works seriously. This is because works written in the 13th century would not have been written accurately. Science should show much more respect for what was recorded earlier. In the Middle Ages and before, people were just as precise as we are.

[98] Science and religion teach different truths, while there is only one truth. Angels cannot fly in space, and science cannot believe that everything comes from nothing. Until we decide that there is something, we will feel insecure and each will invent his own morality.

[99] Kabbalah is Jewish mysticism. The Kabbalah is represented in a diagram (symbol) of a branched Sephirotic tree growing from top to bottom. The sefirot are radiations (emanations) in ten separate sefiras (attributes) of the invisible primal source, God, at the top of the tree. The attributes are actions or creative powers of God. These actions would only be actions of God. God himself is intangible and is an absolute unity. One of the sefirot is the sefira Gevurah (severity). Austerity is said to be the sphere of the angel Sammaël (Edom-Rome) and is balanced by another sefira Chèsed (Mercy). This is because everything would be devoured by the fire of the righteous judgment of God. Chèsed symbolizes Jacob Israel. (Henk Rijnders, 1991).

The contrast between Jacob (Israel) and Ezau (Rome), dr. H. Dubbelman