The other part of the term “national-bolshevism”, “national” also needs to be explained. The notion “nation” itself is far from being simple. There are its biological, political, cultural, economic interpretations. The nationalism may mean both “racial purity” or “ethnic homogeneity” accentuating and the atomistic individuals` consolidation in order to achieve the optimum economic conditions in the limited social and geographical space.
The national-bolshevism “national” component (historical national-bolshevism as well as metahistorical, absolute one) is completely special. Throughout the history national-bolshevik circles were notable for the imperial, geo-political nation interpretation orientation. Ustrialov`s followers and like-minded people, left Eurasians, not to mention Soviet national-bolsheviks, interpreted “nationalism” as over-ethnic, associated with geo-political messianism, with the “place-of-development”, with the culture, with the country continental scale phenomenon. In Niekisch`s and his German supporters` works we also run into the idea of the continental empire “from Vladivostok to Flessing”, and also into the idea of a “third imperial figure”(“Das dritte imperiale Figur”).
In all the cases the question is about the geo-political and cultural nation interpretation, free from even hints on the racism, jingoism or aiming at “ethnic purity”.
This cultural and geo-political “nation” interpretation was based on the fundamental geo-political dualism, at first clearly designated in Macinder`s works and then picked up by Haushofer`s school in Germany and by Russian Eurasians. The imperial conglomeration of the oriental nations, united round Russia, “heartland”, makes up the possible continental country skeleton, consolidated by the “ideocracy” choice and the “plutocracy” rejection, by socialism and the revolution orientation against the capitalism and “progress”.
That is significant, that Niekiesch used to insist upon saying that in Germany the “Third Reich” should have been based on potentially socialist and Protestant Prussia, genetically and culturally associated with Russia and Slavic world, not on the western catholic Bavaria, gravitating towards the Roman and capitalist model. (4) But together with that “great continental” nationalism version, which, by the way, precisely corresponds to the universalistic messianist claims of particular Russian nationalism, which is eschatological and all-human, there was also in national-bolshevism more narrow nation interpretation, not contradicting the imperial scale, but defining it more exactly on the lower level.
In that case “nation” was interpreted in the analogous way to how the concept “narod” (people, nation) was interpreted by Russian narodniks, that is, like some organic, whole being, in essence not yielding to any anatomical subdivision, having its own specific fate and unique structure.
According to Tradition doctrine, the certain angel, the celestial being is appointed to look after each nation of the Earth. This angel is the given nation’s history sense, being out of the time and the space, but being constantly present in all nation’s historical peripetias. The mysticism of a nation is based on this. Nation’s angel isn’t anything vague or sentimental, indistinctly dim. This is an intellectual, lighting being, “God’s thought”, as Gerder said. Its structure one can see in nation’s historical achievements, in social and religious institutes, which characterize the nation, in the national culture. All gist of the national history is just the text of narration about quality and form of that lighting national angel. In traditional society the national angel used to have the personified expression, in “divine” kings, great heroes, pastors and saints. But being the over-human reality, this angel itself does not depend on the human bearer. Therefore after the monarchical dynasties fall it can be incarnated in a collective form, for instance, an order, a class, or even a party.
So, the “nation”, taken as a metaphysical category is not identified with the concrete individuals` multitude of the same blood, culture and speaking the same language, but with the mysterious angelic personality, showing itself throughout all the history. This is the analogue of Hegel`s Absolute Idea, but in minuscule form. The national intellect, being estranged in the individuals` multitude and collected in nation’s elite (in the conscious, “skimmed” form) during the certain eschatological history periods.
Here we come up to a very important point: those two “nation” interpretations, equally acceptable for the national-bolshevik ideology, have a common ground, the magic point, in which they combine all together. The question is about Russia and its historical mission. This is significant, that in German national-bolshevism the Russophilia was the foundation-stone, on which the geo-political, social, economic views were based. The Russian and, to a greater degree, Soviet interpretation of “Russian nation” as an open mystic community, destined to bring the light of salvation and truth to the whole world in times` end epoch, meets both the great continental and historical, cultural nation’s aspects. The Russian and Soviet nationalism just becomes in that situation the national-bolshevism ideology focus, not only within Russia and Eastern Europe frames, but also on the planetary level.
The angel of Russia is discovered as the integration angel, as some special lighting being, seeking to teleologically unite other angelic beings inside itself, not obliterating their individuality, but elevating it to the universal imperial scales. It is not accidental, that Erich Mueller, Ernst Niekiesch`s disciple and associate, wrote in his book called “National-bolshevism”: “If the First Reich was catholic, and the Second Reich was Protestant, the Third Reich should be orthodox”. Orthodox and Soviet at the same time.
In the given case we run into the very interesting question. For the nations` angels are different individuals, the nations` fates throughout the history, and, correspondingly, their social and political, and religious institutes reflect the forces disposition scheme in the angelic world itself. It is amazing, but this absolutely theological idea is brilliantly supported by geo-political researches, which demonstrate the interrelation between geographical, landscape conditions of nations` existence and their culture, psychology and even social and political preferences. So, it is being gradually explained, the dualism between the East and the West, dubbed by the ethnic dualism: the land, “ideocratic” Russia (the Slavic world plus other Eurasian nations) against the island “plutocratic” Anglo-Saxon West. The angelic horde of Eurasia against the Atlantic capitalism armies. About the true nature of Capital’s “angel” (in Tradition its name is “Mammon”) one could easily guess..
The metaphysics of national-bolshevism 1996, Alexander Dugin