1. Introduction


Kings, presidents, politicians, etc. are in charge of the nations. But those who say that invisible powers, such as angels, also exert their influence on this, are looked at with disdain. The predominantly Western secular culture denies a spiritual world. In the past, all peoples were aware of this, but now only peoples outside the Western world take this into account. The world religions testify to this (Dr. Peter B. Clarke, Religions of the World, 1993).


In this article some examples of the relationship between angels and their nations will be presented.


An attempt has been made to gain insight into the nature of that relationship through various sources that devote attention to this subject. It is noted that folk angels and guardian angels are the same.


2. Angels and their nations? What are their duties?


We encounter angels and their nations in the context of the Old Testament. The angels act as representatives of God. They are ambassadors and mediate between the human and the transcendent (the invisible world). All questions on this topic will remain pivotal in the long historical debate that continues to this day (Michele Nicoletti, 1998, theopedia). Guardian angels, according to Jewish and Christian tradition, have been assigned by God to a multitude of peoples and nations. The main Biblical reference is found in Daniel 10: 13-21. In this text the angels of the kingdom of Persia, Greece and Israel are mentioned. The guardian angel of Israel is Michael. As one of the most important angels, he assisted the heavenly messenger, who appears to Daniel, in his battle with the angel of Persia. Later the angel of Greece will come. Then: There is none of the other angels who support me, except your guardian angel Michael (Michele Nicoletti, 1998, theopedia). (1)


But none of the heavenly princes endeavors to help me in all these matters except your prince Michael (Daniel! 12:21, The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi commentary).


These texts show that more angels (also called princes) and their nations are present.


3. The angels and their nations


Jewish sources


There are 70 angels representing the 70 nations (the number of Noah's descendants listed in Gen. Ch.10). The angel Michael was the angel representing the Jewish people; see Daniel 10:21 and 12: 1 (Rabbi Eliahu Levenson, JewishAnswers.org, 2020).


A Midrash (Rabbinic explanation) says: When Abraham was 48 years old, God looked at the great tower that was still under construction. Turning to the seventy angels surrounding His throne, He said, “They are one people and all have one language. . . Let's go down there and confuse their language there, so that they'll become seventy nations with seventy languages. (2) "


The Midrash then tells how God and the seventy angels cast lots to see which angel would be charged with which language and boundary the nation (Deuteronomy 32: 8). When God's destiny fell on Abraham, He proclaimed, One territory (later the land of Israel) becomes My inheritance, Psalm 16: 6, (Was Abrahm Jewish? On the identity of the Pré-Sinai Heres, by Yehuda Shurpin Chabad.org, 2012).


The high or low position of a nation in the world depends on the angel's rank in heaven. That is to say: The creative power of the angel that functions in a certain spiritual sphere. When it rises in heaven, it also has positive consequences for the nation. If the angel falls, then also the (high) position of the nation falls (Isaiah 24:21) (Restoration of Zion as a Reponse during the Holocaust, translated by Pesach Schinkler, 1999 and De Zohar, part I, translated by Harry Spelling, Maurice Simon and Dr. Paul P. Levertoff, 1984).Outside the Land of Israel, through His Word of God, God imparts life force to the guardian angels who have been appointed over the seventy nations. That is to say: A spark of the word of God descends and radiates over the guardian angels. The life force for the angels. Then from the guardian angels the life force radiates to the nations, to the animals in their land, the physical world and the physical heavens, i.e. the spheres in which the stars orbit the earth. That is why these angels are called other gods. While they call Him God of the gods, they consider themselves to be gods (Schneur Zalman or Liadi writes in the Tanya (3) for Wednesday, 28 Tishrei, 5768 - October 10, 2007).


3.1. The Angel of Egypt


Soon after Joseph died, the heavenly representative (angel) of Egypt was given dominion over all other nations. Then a new king came, etc. (Exodus 1: 8). Pharaoh, the king of, was the earthly manifestation of the "guardian angel" of Egypt. This angel fell from his high status after the deliverance of Israel by God in Egypt (Exodus 2:23) (The Zohar, Part III, translated by Harry Spelling, Maurice Simon and Dr. Paul P. Levertoff, 1984).


3.2 The angel of Babylon


I will create an earthquake: all their hosts will tremble when I cast down the prince (angel) of Babylon. God does not punish the nations until He first punishes their heavenly princes (Isaiah 24:21). It says here: The Lord will visit the heavenly multitude on high and then the kings of the earth. Scripture continues (Isaiah 14:12): How did you fall from heaven, Lucifer as the morning star? And then: You have been brought down to the ground. "Here too, first," I will make the heavens tremble, "and then," I will make the earth tremble. " Isaiah, chapter 13:13, The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi commentary).


How did you fall from Heaven Morning Star? You fell to the ground. The morning star is the planet Venus, which gives light like the morning star. This is the lamentation over the heavenly prince of Babylon who will fall from heaven (Chabad.org, Isaiah, chapter 14:12, The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi commentary).




In both Isaiah 13:13 and Isaiah 14:12 it concerns the angel of Babylon, who is compared to the planet Venus. In verse 13:13 Venus is mentioned as Lucifer, as light bearer. It's a difficult mystery.


More than 70 nations


Rabbi Goldberger (1995) argues that despite the comings and goings of nations "of the world," the exact same nations cannot be expected to exist forever. But the number "70" as the paradigm for the Gentile nations remains intact. Understandably, the original number of 70 can be replaced. Examples are the nations of the world today, although they have roots in one of the original number of 70.


Newly emerged nations have their origins in the 70 nations. Examples are: The Seven Nations in Canaan. Ammon, Moab, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Edom, the nations and Israel and Ishmael (descendants of the family of Terah). These nations could have belonged to the nation of Terah, the father of Abraham. From this nation they came forth as if they were already new nations. God has also given them an angel for the purpose that they might survive as new nations. This implies that no nation can exist without a national angel (70 nations and the Jewish people, 1995 and Mi Yoda, 2017).


In the Zohar, Volume III it says again that Esau-Edom and Ishmael-Arabia have their own angels. Also in the Zohar, Volume III, the angel of Egypt is mentioned with the lesser gods at the exodus from Israel. The angel and the lesser gods and the nation of Egypt were punished by God because Israel was oppressed. These gods were not mere idols made of stone and wood.


Christian sources


3.5. The Angel of Russia


In the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church, angels are assigned to all nations in the world. These angels assert themselves as the national consciousness. They are outside of time and space, but are constantly present in the history of their nations.


The angel, as a heavenly being, acts as “God's thought”. Which translates into mysticism, religion and culture. The angel revealed himself in 'divine' kings, great heroes, predecessors and saints. The angel does not depend on man. After the fall of monarchical dynasties, the angel can incarnate in organizations. For example in a class or even in a party.


The "nation" is considered a metaphysical category and is not a human product. The nation is linked to the mysterious angel. Whose influence is manifested in national history (Alexander Dugin (4), Metaphysics of National Bolshevism, 1996).


3.6. Angels over nations and cities


St. Thomas Aquinas, like many of the Church Fathers and scholars (in the Church (5), taught that every country has its own Guardian Angel. In fact, St. Clement of Alexandria goes so far as to state that entire "Regiments of angels are divided among nations and cities" (cf. Father Pascal Parente, The Angels, p. 119 and Opus Angelorum website, 2016).


Calvin writes from the Reformed view: Thus Daniel indicates, according to the angel of the Persians and the angel of the Greeks, that certain angels as governors of kingdoms and landscapes ordain and are appointed (Institution, The First Book, page 78, by JH Landeweer, 1977).


3.7. The angel of the German people


Michele Nicoletta mentions the article in “Der Engel des Deutschen Volkes” by Joseph Bernhart (6). He wrote about Germany's Guardian Angel in 1934. According to Bernhart, every nation is a historical expression of a thought that is eternally present in God. This explains the originality of each nation and the angel, regardless of the duration of their survival. By the piety given by the people to the angels, the nation presents itself before the throne of God and acknowledges His Sovereignty. This shows correct nationality. The wrong nationality arises when nationalism becomes independent. The cause lies in the "satanic" temptation that all nations have to contend with. They then make their angel their God and deify their own genius, identity and superiority. But the angels are not God (Judges 13: 15-16).


The power then becomes devilish, and when the angel of the nation rebels against God, he becomes a fallen angel. Its demonic nature is also used against humans in tyranny and death. When it falls, it also drags people along with it (Michele Nicoletta, 1998, theopedia).


3.8. The Guardian Angel of Portugal


How every country has a guardian angel who will protect it from danger.


The Catholic faith holds that God has appointed a guardian angel over every country.


This belief is derived from the Jewish tradition that the angel Michael is the protector of the nation of Israel (Daniel 10). Also, in the book of Exodus, God declares, "Behold, I am sending before you an angel to guard you on the way, and to bring you to the place which I have prepared" (Exodus 23:20). The said angel is there for the entire nation of Israel, leading them through the wilderness to safety.


Catholics adhered to this belief and early on began celebrating feasts in different regions in honor of their guardian angels. As Portugal celebrates a party on June 10 in honor of the guardian angel of the nation of Portugal.


The catechism of the Catholic Church even refers to this belief. A division into many nations, each entrusted by divine providence to the guardianship of angels (CCC 57) ((Aleteia Philip Kosloski, 2 October, 2019)).


3.9. The Angel of Spain


A statue of the Guardian Angel of Spain in the Church of Joseph, Madrid (Maria Helena Lacerda, 1/4/2013).


3.10 The Guardian Angel of the United States


Bishop Jeffrey M. Monforton of Steubenville, Ohio authorized a Prayer to the Guardian Angel of the United States on his website.


"O Glorious Guardian Angel of the United States, to whom God has entrusted the care of our beloved land, we honor and thank you for the care and protection you have given this great nation from the very first moment of its creation."


All Americans should be aware that a statue has been erected at the National Shrine of the World Apostolate of Fatima in Washington, NY, in honor of the United States' Guardian Angel. The statue was dedicated on July 4, 1982 (Opus Angelorum website, 2016).


3.10. The Guardian Angel of France


The angel Hakamiah is the guardian angel of France. Hakamiah can be invoked for protection against traitors and is an angel of the order of Cherubim. This angel is one of the angels who bears the name of God Shemhamphorae (7) (Faber, Lee, The Book of Angels. London. Arcturus Publishing Ltd, 2012).


4. Evaluation and conclusion


The world is a mysterious place, full of spiritual beings that our eyes cannot see (the Unseen Realm, Immanual Christian Community, London, 2014).


But what about the "concept of angels and their nations" today? After the Enlightenment (8) changes occur in Western culture. These changes had a major impact in church and theology (Dr. F. de Graaff, The disappearance of the angels from church and theology, 2004). A transcendent (invisible) world is no longer self-evident.


Philosophy professor Roger Scruton writes about the loss of the transcendent in a godless world (Endless Longing for the Sacred, Amsterdam, 2015). Scruton cites science as a major threat to the transcendent world. Rather, the scientist describes man as an animal, a being that obeys laws that we have not yet discovered. In that description lacks a crucial fact, namely that we are persons who act freely and take responsibility for their actions (Paul Delfgaauw, People and Gods, February 28, 2016).


Yet the examples show that even in our time the transcendent world is still taken into account. Examples are the angels of Russia, Portugal, Spain, France, and the USA It states that governments are under the influence of invisible angelic powers. According to Chabad. org. Jewish stories, numerous angels of the European nations would not admit Jews into their lands, with the exception of the angel of Poland. Despite being defeated (9)by Jesus, the angels of the nations are still able to rebel against God (Michele Nicoletti, 1998).


In addition, it is not impossible that angels of nations also influenced the genesis of replacement theology. This is evident from, among other things, visions of both Church Fathers and Reformers (10) regarding their vision of the Jews (Israel, the apple of God, Hendrik Schipper, 2019).


In Christian culture, angels are portrayed as self-willed beings that can lead to rebellion against God. According to Psalm 82, then follows the judgment of God and sooner or later the decline of their nation (Dr. F. de Graaff, When gods die, 1969).


Judaism does not assume this. Judaism teaches us that angels have no will of their own (11) (Jodendomonline, 2009). God raises and lowers nations with their angels (Rashi commentary and the Zohar, Part III). When a nation sins heavily, it weakens its angel. Conversely, when a nation acts according to God's commandments, it strengthens its angel (Chaim Luzzatto, The Way to God, translated by Arey Kaplan, 1996). God first weakens the angel and then the nation (Isaiah 24:21). The nation is gradually becoming detached from God. Other spiritual forces are allowed to enter the spiritual realm. Wouldn't this type of process also be present in the West?


The Western world is secularising at a rapid pace (Elleke Bal in Volzin, 1-2-2020). This means that God and the spiritual world are no longer taken into account (12). This (spiritual) crisis is camouflaged partly by mass media, politics, etc. by prosperity (Rob Riemen, Nexus, in Dr. L. F. de Graaff, The Disappearance of the Angels from Church and Theology, 2004). We are currently seeing this phenomenon in Europe and the USA Angels who ruled their realm have lost their power or are weak (When Gods Die, Dr. F. de Graaff, 1968).


The question is what metahistorical changes is the West currently undergoing?




Yet there are things that we will never understand, not because we are limited by knowledge or technology, but because it is impossible to understand. Questions such as: What was before the time? What is behind the room? Why is infinity a relative concept? And if something is infinitely large, why does anything fit in with it? We keep getting stuck in our reasoning. In this way you run up against the limits of what a person can understand, and you get closer to the essence of human consciousness. What we don't understand shows who we are (NosonS. Vanofsky, The Outer Limits of Reason, 2014).


There are more things in heaven and on earth, Horatio, than your science dreams of (Shakespeare Hamlet (1.5.167-8).=


The mystery of the beginning of all things is unsolvable. And I, to begin with, have to be content with ignorance, and I have to content for one to remain an agnostic. (Charles Darwin, Vichtor Mochere, in Education, 2021).





(1) Michele Nicoletti (Trento, November 19, 1956) is an Italian politician and philosopher. He was President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in 2018 (Wikipedia). He was a member of the Commission of the Twelve, an advisory body for the implementation of the Trentino-Südtirol Statute, and was also Provincial Secretary of the Democratic Party of Trentino until March 16, 2014. On January 22, 2018, he was elected 31st Chairman of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. A body that brings together parliamentarians from 47 European countries to promote human rights and democracy. He is only the second Italian to hold the position. Previously, he was the leader of the Assembly's second-largest political group, the Socialist Group, and head of the Italian parliamentary delegation to the Assembly. He is also a professor of political philosophy at the University of Trento, in Trentino, Italy.


(2) The Talmudic Tradition that there are seventy language families in the world is based on the list of Noah's descendants. This tradition of seventy (meta) nations is deeply rooted. According to the Midrash, each of the seventy nations is placed under the protection of a special angel, except Israel, whose protector is God Himself (WikiNoah.org).

This reminds us that while the destinies of nations of the world are guided by angels, assigned by Hashem to each nation and its borders. except the Jewish people under His direct supervision (Sefaria CommunityTur HaAroch, Deuteronomy 29: 25-32: 8). Sefaria is an online open source free digital library of Jewish texts. It was founded in 2011 by former Google project manager Brett Lockspeiser and journalist author Joshua Foer.


(3) The Tanya (Hebrew) is an early work of Hasidic philosophy, first published in 1796 by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad-Hasidism.


(4) As a political philosopher, Aleksandr Dugin is the ideological founder of current Russian foreign policy and an influential adviser to President Putin. He is the founder of the Russian Eurasian Party and the foremost champion of Eurasianism, which maintains that Russia occupies a unique cultural position between Europe and Asia that is incompatible with Western liberal values.


(5) Gegory the Great, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Basillius, Augustine, Bernard of Clairvaux, Jean Daniélou, etc. They were theologians and philosophers. Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas or Thomas Aquinas (Roccasecca, ± 1225 - Fossanova, March 7, 1274) was an Italian philosopher and theologian, counted among the Scholastics. He is the most influential systematic thinker in the theological and philosophical fields of the Middle Ages. His works remained highly regarded in the Catholic Church for centuries.


(6) Joseph Bernhart (born August 8, 1881 in Ursberg; † February 21, 1969 in Türkheim) was a Catholic theologian, religious scholar and publicist.


(7) The Shem HaMephorash (Hebrew), which means the explicit name. Is an original Tannaitic term describing a hidden name of God. Lee Faber is a native American who became a British citizen and has lived in the UK since 1981. She has lived and worked in New York, Florida and London and now lives in Wiltshire.


(8) Author of this window - Dr. Floris van den Berg in the Humanistic Canon website.The Enlightenment is an intellectual movement that flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. Enlightenment thinkers rebel against the church and authorities. They want to study the world in freedom and redesign society. The term Enlightenment refers to the light of reason that shines in the darkness of the Middle Ages.


(9) Colossenzen 2:15.


(10) A.o. Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Augustine, Luther, Calvin etc.


(11) This has not always been the case before the fall. Rabbi Sprecher answers this (Jodendomonline 26 October 2009).


(12) More than half of the Dutch are not religious (Statistics Netherlands. 22-10-2018).









What do the angels and their nations still mean these daysdr. H. Dubbelman