Throughout history, Amalek, the errant grandson of Esau and his murderous brood have attempted to wipe out the descendants of Jacob. The enmity between these two peoples was evident even as they struggled together in the womb of their mother Rebecca.
“And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.” – Gen.25:23
The Hebrew word for “nations” is unique in the above verse. The word is usually rendered goyim and generally spelled with a vav. Here it is spelled with two yuds making the word geyim, which means “lofty ones” or “nobles.” Hashem is telling Rebecca that world leaders will come from the children.[i]
The twins continued their natal wrestling match as they tumbled out of the birth canal, Jacob grasping the akev (heel) of his older brother. From that day forward and down through the centuries, Esau’s offspring have tried to oppress or stamp out Jacob’s descendants under their heel. A casual reading of the text might also give the impression that Jacob will always be subject to Esau. But the history of the Jewish people has demonstrated that at times Israel has been stronger. As the commentaries point out, when the House of Jacob listens to the voice of the Creator they are the stronger of the two.
After wrestling with an angel Jacob becomes Israel, a multifaceted title that can be rendered either “upright with G-d” or “man struggling with G-d.”. Esau later becomes known as Edom, which is “red” but also alludes to the adom or the dirt that he chose to wallow in because of his blatant disregard for everything that was sacred. This ignoble name also hints at his desire to subjugate his younger twin in the dirt.
The words of Hashem to Rebecca also reveal another aspect of the twins. The lives of these two will provide the template for national character traits. Jacob as Israel embodied his people’s striving for a higher purpose to rebuild the world based on Torah. The patriarch learned to look to the Creator for direction in all things. Esau rejected the G-d of his fathers in favor of man-made gods and the most alluring idol of all: himself. These gods are still expressed in the man-made ideologies that are held so dear by the Western world today. The Tribes of Israel from Jacob and the Princes of Edom from Esau would worship, procreate, build, govern and war as they actualized these opposing concepts.
A Dream of Kingdoms
A few years before Jacob’s struggle with the angel at Penuel, Hashem had shown the Patriarch a sort of heavenly coming attractions of world history. In Genesis 28:12 when Jacob spends the night at Beit El, he has a dream. He sees a ladder on the earth reaching up to heaven. Angels are ascending and descending. We know that this so-called ladder is unique because the Hebrew word employed is selom and this is the only place that word is found in the entire Torah. The meaning of the dream is varied and wonderful. For the purposes of this article we will focus on one interpretation that alludes to Esau, also known as Edom.[ii]
The angels symbolize the four world empires that would ascend to power, then descend. Each rung of the ladder would represent a year of their rule. The analogy is very fitting since powerful nations appear gradually on the world scene and in the same manner go into decline.
In his dream, Jacob counts as Babylon’s angel climbs 70 rungs (years) and descends. The angel of the Persian Empire goes up 52 rungs and steps down. The angel of Greece climbs180 rungs of the ladder and descends. However, when the angel of Edom scales the ladder, Jacob is shaken at seeing Edom’s angel climb out of sight. HaShem tells Jacob that Edom will nearly reach the Throne of G-d but be cast down.[iii]
Edom’s rule has extended into modern history. But who or where is Edom today?
The thirty-sixth chapter of Genesis lists the lineage of Esau’s offspring and verse 31 of the same chapter reminds us of a vital fact: these were Edomite kings who ruled before there was any king of Israel.[iv]
The concept of Israel’s exile among four world powers is also found in the words of the prophets such as Daniel and Zechariah. Though it is generally agreed that the fourth empire of Daniel 7:8 is the Roman Empire, some hold that Rome is another manifestation of Edom. Great Jewish sages, such as Maimonides (Rambam) and Ibn Ezra are unequivocal in maintaining that Edom symbolized the Roman Empire.[v] Some modern rabbinic commentators have expanded on this concept to embrace all of Western Civilization and its negative influence over the Jewish people.
As illustrated in our last Researcher, the one who sprang from Esau/Edom is Amalek whose murderous unending campaign has been fought in what military historians might term the Middle Eastern Theater. But Amalek had a half-brother who was also dramatically involved in this epic struggle. His name was Zepho and like Amalek, he too waged war against the children of Israel. Zepho did so mainly in the Mediterranean and European Theater of combat. This little-known figure from antiquity is really the vital link that connects Edom to Rome.
“Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because he did pursue his brother with the sword, and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear perpetually, and he kept his wrath forever…” – Amos 1:11
Amalek, a prince of Edom, reveals his roots by exhibiting the basest values and employing bloody violence to achieve dominance over Israel. Zepho, half-brother of Amalek, was far more cunning. Their grandfather Esau, taught them both that one could ensnare others with guile.[vi] If words failed, then resort to the sword.
Tracing Zepho’s conflict with the Children of Israel is important because it will reference geographic, historic and cultural signposts that will lead us directly to the founding of ancient Rome. From there we can track the influence of that empire’s Greco-Roman principles and their hold over our own modern world. We will now take a compelling journey as the infamous Zepho precipitates the harsh bondage of the Exodus, as he hears first hand of the fall of Troy and travels to the coasts of Africa and Biblical Kittim.
Before we trace Zepho’s impact we need to set the stage…to locate the geographical pieces of the puzzle that will come together before he arrives on the scene.
The Stuff of Legends
“When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.” - Deuteronomy 32:8
The above verse from the Torah makes it apparent that the nations of the world were divided into 70 distinct cultures and tongues. The number of souls who immigrated to Egypt with the patriarch Jacob determined the separation. These words are also linked to the scattering of mankind after the destruction of the Tower of Babel. The Zohar (I, 177a) reveals that each nation was put under the authority of an archangel. But where did each angel lead those nations?
In one respect, searching the Biblical Hebrew texts for the origins of the Edom/Rome can be frustrating. There is no specific reference to Rome in the Tanach (the so-called Old Testament)[vii] because its ancestry is only suggested and that lineage has been subject to hot debate.
The Roman armies did not reach the shores of Israel until well after the cessation of the Prophetic Era. That was when the last of the prophets, Ezra and Nehemiah passed away in the Jewish year 3448 (312 BCE) and that same year also marked the beginning of Greek domination of the Jewish people.[viii] Rome would not have any impact on Israel for at least another 200 years.
On the other hand, we can look to the Talmud and such sources as Sepher Ha Yasher, Seder Ha Olam and other Midrash that offer intriguing clues to the origins of these world’s empires and their impact on Israel. Sepher Ha Yasher offers the most startling clues. In fact, this midrash takes the reader back to the very beginnings of Rome and Greece. The text also presents surprising parallels to familiar GrecoRoman legends.
First, it is necessary to establish the authority of Sepher Ha Yasher. The best endorsement for this ancient account are found two places in the Bible, in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. The first verse cited relates the miraculous event of the sun standing still during Joshua’s battle against the Amorites in the Valley of Ayalon and rhetorically asks, “Is this not written in the Book of Jasher?”
My library contains two versions of Sefer Ha Yasher, one published in 1993 by Yosher Press and distributed by KTAV Publishers in Hoboken, New Jersey. The editor of the latter, Avraham Davis maintains that though the origins of the work are uncertain, it has been quoted by Jewish scholars for ages. It was first printed in Naples in 1553. The language of the book reflects a grasp of geography that is definitely post-Biblical with references to locales such as Lombardy and Tuscany. Sefer Ha Yasher is quoted throughout the exhaustive, 19 volume Torah anthology MeAm Loez written nearly 250 years ago by the great Sephardic sage Rabbi Yaakov Culi. Thanks to my lovely wife Carol, I also have access to the English version of the anthology.[ix]
The other copy of Sepher Ha Yasher was published in England in 1840 and is now available from Artisan Press in Muskogee, Oklahoma. The English title, Book of Jasher, often confuses those unfamiliar with Hebrew. Some construe “jasher” as the author’s name. However, the word is a translation of yashar, meaning straight or upright. The title literally means “Upright Book.” I have checked this latter version with many of the specific events mentioned in MeAm Loez and found them to be consistent.
The Sanctity of Time
Most secular historians will instantly object to my turning to what they would consider an obscure sacred text. Using the Bible and related sources for historical research is always considered problematic. I will no doubt be warned that I am on shaky ground relying on such “legendary” sources or even worse, material derived from religious source. But the very origins of Greece and Rome handed down to us from the likes of Herodotus, Eusebius and Titus Livius, to name a few, must all depend on legends. In fact, the Greeks and Romans share something in common with many ancient cultures: they cannot decisively pinpoint their own beginnings. Much of Rome’s early history is really the province of poets like Virgil and Ennius.
I agree with historian Will Durant who said, “We must not ignore these stories…they may contain more history than we suppose; and they are so bound up with Greek poetry, drama and art that we should be at a loss to understand these without them.[x]
In their earliest stages, these ancient cultures were completely oblivious to the concept of record keeping. However, time has always been sacred to the Jews. It is sacred to them because it is sacred to God. In the Torah there is a clear mandate to observe time. This sanctity of time is even more evident in the numerous mitzvoth (commandments) given to the people of Israel to honor the 7th day as holy and to commemorate Hashem’s appointed feasts. Israel was to be especially mindful of honoring the Sabbath (or Shabbat). Not only was this a primary commandment for Israel, their inescapable national fate is tied to their faithful observance of Shabbat. For just one example, read the warnings of the prophet Nehemiah to the men of Judah[xi]:
“Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath day? Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? Yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath.” – Nehemiah 13:17
It is clear that the very of existence of the nation of Israel hinged on their observance of these and other laws given at Sinai.[xii] This determination to maintain a chronology is further illustrated in the Torah’s numerous genealogies.
While it’s impossible to know when Rome was founded, an observant Jew can tell you that the Torah was given on the 6th of Sivan, in the year 2448 (1312 BCE).[xiii] Since the Torah is the equivalent of Israel’s Constitution and Declaration of Independence this date can be likened to our own July 4th. How many nations can trace their beginning to an exact date over 3,000 years ago?
Blame the Greeks
If you’ve ever tried to trace the origins of the nations you will quickly find the trail going cold. The reason for this is the tendency among scholars to rely heavily on the classical Greek sources. This can be somewhat confusing for the uninitiated. The Greeks often called any person, place or thing only by a Greek name thereby obscuring the origin. This state of affairs is nothing new. The Jewish historian Josephus encountered this same situation. In chapter five of his Antiquities of the Jews he wrote of the impact of the Greeks and manages to couch this slice of history in the form of a complaint,
“There were some also who passed over the sea in ships, and inhabited the islands; and some of those nations do retain their names which were given to them by their founders; but some have lost them also; and some have admitted certain changes in them that they might be more intelligible to the inhabitants; and they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations, for when in after ages they became potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity-giving names to the nations that sounded well in Greek….as if they were a people derived from themselves.”[xiv]
This Greek influence noted by Josephus is something that has tainted even the study of ancient Egypt. We still refer to many of the Pharaohs by the Greek variant of their names. Today, we only know the monumental structures of ancient Egypt by the words bestowed on them by early Greek tourists. The most blatant examples are pyramid (the Greek word for “wheat cakes” andobelisk, these monoliths reminded the Greeks of “skewers” for roasting meats).[xv]
Returning to the works of Josephus, the historian relates how these sons of Javan spread rapidly after the Tower and influenced much of the world in their time. The Romans borrowed heavily from the Greeks. On that point there is no dispute. The origins of Rome are intertwined with that of Greece.
Historian R.M. Ogilvie, in his introduction to The Early History of Rome reveals that the nation’s beginnings were not recorded until almost 300 years after its first kings ruled. Upon close examination it seems that these so-called historical accounts were merely”Greek stories clothed in Roman dress.”[xvi]
Greece had influenced the fledging Roman culture so much that the southern region of Italy was once known as greater Greece. Italians were proud of the fact that the one could find more Greek ruins in Italy than in Greece.[xvii] Perhaps the reason for this situation is more straightforward than we might first imagine. These influences are based on the fact that these nations simply shared the same ancestry.
As we shall soon see, the common ancestry of the Romans and the Greeks can be gleaned from the Genesis account of Noah and his sons after the Flood. Since the Children of Israel have kept a record of their history through the births and deaths of their patriarchs and the nation’s seminal events, we should be able to trace the origins of other nations who came in contact with Israel. Here is where we turn to the Torah and other Jewish sources.
According to legend, the founders of Rome, the twins Romulus and Remus were the descendants of Aeneas of Troy. This heroic figure was forced into exile following the fall of Troy.[xviii] Though Aeneas was a Trojan who fought the Greeks he was basically still a Greek.
Aeneas is pivotal to our search for the Edom-Rome connection and we will encounter him again in this article. We can further verify this close affinity between the Greek and Romans by looking to the book of Genesis and Sefer Ha Yasher. Noah’s son Japheth was the father of Javan. Among those born to him are Elishah, and Tarshish, Chittim, and Dodanim. The text also adds a very helpful geographic note, “By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.”[xix]
Javan is easily converted to Ionia. In Hebrew the name begins with a yud which can be transposed to an “i” while the “a” becomes a silent aleph and the “v” is changed to a “vav” which can be pronounced with a long “o” sound. Naturally, the nun gives us the “n” sound. Ionia is one of the ancient appellations for Greece.
In Search of Elishah, Tarshish, Chittim and Dodanim
Chapter ten of Sefer Ha Yasher describes the dispersion of families following the fall of the Tower of Babel. It occurs in the 48th year of the life of the patriarch Abraham. Since it is the same year that Peleg, the son of Eber passes away there is a strong implication that the destruction of the Tower was caused by the splitting of the earth’s continents.[xx] According to the Jewish chronology this massive seismic event occurs 1,996 years from Adam or 1764 BCE.[xxi] Verse 13 informs us that the children of Javan, “…dwell in Makdonia (Macedonia).” The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus also confirms that Javan is the ancestor of the Greeks.[xxii]
As stated above, one of the sons of Javan is Elisha. In Chapter 10, verse 15, Sepher Ha Yasher expands on the post-flood dispersion,”…the children of Elisha (son of Javan,) are the Almanim, and they built themselves cities…and of them were the people of Lumbardi, who dwell between the mountains of Job and Shbathmo, and they conquered the land of Italia.” This is consistent with the concept that those who first settled the mountainous northern area of Italy were directly related to the Ionians/Greeks. This surely is the source for Greece’s other name of Ellas or Hellas from which we derive the term for Greek religious concepts known as Hellenism.
The next verse reveals even more detail, “And the children of Chittim are the Romin who dwell in the valley of Canopia by the river Tiberu.”
It doesn’t take much effort to connect the dots.
The most casual student of history knows that Rome was founded on the banks of the River Tiber. The Aramaic text known as theTargum also identifies Chittim as Italy.[xxiii] In later years, when Rome became a world power, they deployed their naval fleets in their plan for conquest. This is further developed in the Biblical references to the ships of Chittim.[xxiv] Of course the prizewinner for Biblical references to ships is Tarshish but we will deal with them at the appropriate place in this article. We can now establish that those who first inhabited Italy are the descendants of Chittim and Elisha who both share common ancestry with Javan/Ionia, the people of Greece.
Another son of Japthet, and brother of Javan, was Tubal. This nation figures heavily in the prophecies found in the 38th chapter of Ezekiel but we also find reference to them in the book of Isaiah:
“And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles”. – Isaiah 66:19
Apparently, Tubal was also located among the so-called island nations. In the pages of Sepher ha Yasher, chapter seventeen, we discover that the sons of Tubal settle in Tuscanuh, near the Tiber after making war against the children of Chittim. The men of Tubal founded a city called Sabinah. This area is still easy to locate on modern maps. The region is north of Rome full of mountains with scattered marshes along its coasts. Tuscany also skirts an area once known as Sabine. It is in this region thatSepher Ha Yasher details an episode that is echoed in the legends of ancient Rome.
The Rape of the Sabine Women
According to the account in chapter 17 of Sefer Ha Yasher the sons of Tubal suffer a massive defeat after an unprovoked assault by the sons of Chittim. In the aftermath, the people of Tubal swear that they will never allow intermarriage between Chittim and Tubal. This news was not well received by the men of Chittim because the daughters of Tubal were renowned for their beauty. This was too much for the lust-crazed men of Chittim.
After a delegation of ten men sent to request wives was rejected, they literally take matters into their own hands. Three years later at harvest time, while the men were away tending the fields, the Chittim kidnap the women of Sabinah.[xxv] This act, of course, precipitates another war.
Now compare the story you’ve just read with a very similar account from Roman historian Titus Livius. He relates that during the time of Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome, there proved to be a shortage of wives for Roman men. One reason for this was a ban imposed by neighboring villages against marrying Romans. Romulus at first sends an appeal to the neighboring regions that they consider intermarriage. However, his overtures are rebuffed.
Romulus hatches a plot. He invites all the neighboring people to an annual festival for Neptune. The crowds spill into the city and among them, Livius notes, “…are all the Sabines.” While the people are wrapped up in the excitement of celebration, a signal is given and the young Roman males break into the gathering. They run through the confused throng and carry off the women of their choice. Naturally a war ensues with the attack being led by Tatius, king of the Sabines.[xxvi] This incident is also recalled in the plays of Gnaeus Naevius and Quintus Ennius.
As recorded by Livius, this oft-told tale is legendary in character. But simply because it is a legend, I do not discount it entirely. Since it is has never been documented, the exact timeframe cannot be determined. But Sepher ha Yasher records the story as actual history. It even marks the beginning of the trouble between these warring peoples as being in the 91st year of the life of Abraham.
The account in Sepher Ha Yasher allows us to date the settling of the Italian peninsula by people of Javan/Ionian extraction to around 340 years after the flood. But it would be hundreds of years before an empire would rise from these crude cities scattered among the isles. It would also take leaders fueled by ruthless ambition to found such an empire. We can see in this account the traits exhibited by a people that would become known for the forceful and brutal manner in which they seized the world stage.
The Fleets of Tarshish
Earlier in this article I made brief mention of Tarshish and its ships. Due to the many references found in the Tanach it is evident that the inhabitants of Tarshish are chiefly a sea-faring people.[xxvii] Biblically their name is linked to maritime pursuits more than any other nation. Obviously, their fame lay in their skill as merchants sailing the coasts of the ancient Mediterranean. The design of their sailing vessels was so efficient that any craft fashioned in the same manner was referred to as a ship of Tarshish. Fixing them geographically is not quite as simple since there are vastly differing opinions as to the exact location of Tarshish.
Josephus refers to Tharsus though he is obviously speaking of Tarshish since he lists them among the sons of Javan. He also locates their homeland at a place the Greeks called Cilicia, which would later be the site of Tarsus, famous as the birthplace of the Apostle Paul. This area can be found on ancient maps as a strip of southern coastal land on what we now call Turkey, just north of Cyprus.
Sepher Ha Yasher tells of Tarshish going to war just after Joseph becomes Viceroy in ancient Egypt. Chapter 50 relates that the children of Tarshish had waged a lengthy war against the children of Ishmael. The leaders of the Ishmaelites send an official appeal for military aide to Egypt. Pharaoh dispatches Joseph to lead a campaign against Tarshish. The new Egyptian Prime Minister’s operation to aid the Ishmaelites is successful “and when the land of Tarshish was subdued, all the Tarshishites ran away, and came on the border of their brethren the children of Javan.”[xxviii]
What if the restless sea-going sons of Tarshish chose not to remain among their Greek kinsman? Perhaps the previously mentioned Tarsus, north of Cyprus retained the name of these one-time inhabitants before they migrated westward. I will now crawl out on a limb of this genealogical tree and offer what I believe to be a better candidate for Tarshish: Spain.
“Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs” – Ezekiel 27:12
A few Biblical commentaries make passing reference to Spain as Tarshish but usually dismiss it in favor of a site closer to the Greek Isles. I would like to suggest that by virtue of their long history of sea worthiness the Spanish are most likely the people of Tarshish. For instance, it is recorded that, in antiquity, a sea-going people arrived from Asia Minor on the Southwestern coasts of what is now Spain and founded a port called Tartessus[xxix]. Arguably, the name is very similar to Tarshish. Spain was famous for tin, gold and especially silver.[xxx] Even the prophet Jeremiah speaks of silver plates from Tarshish.[xxxi] Spain’s nautical heritage can be found in the name of the northernmost province called Navarra. It means boat. The name shares a linguistic root with the French navire and its related words such as navigate. An even more remarkable link to the sea-going origins of ancient Hispaniacan be found in the Hebrew word for boat: spinah.
Finally, we should consider the prophetical character of the many scriptural renderings that speak of the naval prowess of Tarshish and its dominance of the seas. Again, the same can be said for Spain. We all remember our World History lessons regarding the mighty Spanish Armada who held sway over the seas until they were defeated by England in the summer of 1588. This victory of the English fleet for Queen Elizabeth was to radically shift the global power base for years to come.[xxxii]
The Dodanim and the Fall of Troy
The Dodanim are only found twice in the Bible and both verses only mention their lineage from Javan, after the flood.[xxxiii]Herodotus speaks of a city in his day called Dodona. It was said to be the site of one of the most ancient oracles in Greece.[xxxiv]The Aramaic text known as the Targum identifies Dodanim as Dardania, a city on the Hellespont, also called the Dardanelles, the straits that separate the European continent from Asia. This same site is better known as the city of Troy. The mythical founder of Troy was called Dardanus and the Trojans were sometimes called Dardanians.[xxxv] There is even an Egyptian papyrus that describes a battle fought at Kadesh against the Hittites, relating that the Dardenu were their allies in battle.[xxxvi] Throughout his epic The Illiad the poet Homer calls the Trojans, Dardanians. If the Dodanim of Genesis 10:4 and the Dardanians are one and the same then we have a Biblical connection to the people of Troy. Not to muddy the historical waters but the other name for ancient Troy was Illium (hence, Illiad). The name was derived from Illis who was the son of Tros. This Illis may have been named afterElisha, one of the sons of Javan the Biblical ancestor of the Greeks.
Earlier in this article we mentioned Aeneas. He is the central figure found in legendary poem called The Aeneid. This is Rome’s national epic written around 30 BCE by Publius Vergilis Maro, known simply as Virgil. The Aeneid was very popular long after Virgil’s death and seems to have taken on the force of history even though the gods often intervene in the narrative.[xxxvii]
The Roman historian Titus Livius appears to have drawn liberally from The Aeneid in his Early History of Rome. In Livy’s account, Aeneas and his men set sail for a new home following the defeat of Troy. After some misfortunes, the weary Trojans eventually land in Italy and forge an alliance with Latinus, a local chieftain. Latinus offers his daughter, Lavinia, in marriage to Aeneas who happily accepts. But the marriage causes a war. It seems that Latinus had already promised his daughter to Turnus, the prince of Rutuli. In the war that ensues both sides suffer heavy losses. Turnus is defeated and Latinus dies in battle. Aeneas survives and marries Lavinia. The couple is destined to be the ancestors of Romulus and Remus, the twins who will found the city of Rome.[xxxviii]
An Amazing Parallel
Now, compare the legendary tale you’ve just read with a strikingly similar incident found in Sepher ha Yasher. The book relates how the king named Angeas of Dinhaba is informed of a great beauty living in Chittim. He sends word that he wishes to marry her. Since her father has passed away the people of her city assent to the marriage. But another ruler in Italy, Turnus, has also heard of the woman’s beauty and has dispatched his messengers to ask for her hand.
When Turnus is informed that he is too late he decides the only way to settle the matter is to go to war. Angeas dispatches his troops and is victorious. And he gets the girl. The chapter closes by relating that Angeas and his people would continually plunder Chittim.[xxxix]
The parallels here are undeniable. The text makes it clear by stating, “Dinhaba, which is Africa.” By looking at a map, you’ll see that Chittim (Italy) is closest to Africa in the area of Tunisia, which is where you will find ancient Carthage. It is an established historical fact that the Carthaginians waged constant wars of plunder against the Romans. The most notable of these campaigns were the so-called Punic Wars that later brought a general named Hannibal to prominence.[xl] If we are to believe the Sepher ha Yasher, there was no Carthage at the time of Angeas but just a few miles west, along the same coastline, is a site that is a strong contender for the ancient Dinhaba. It is a region that has always been called Annaba.
By now you may be asking how does all of this come together to prove that Rome is Esau? As I stated earlier, I wanted to move all the geographical elements of the puzzle into place before introducing Esau/Edom. It is here that we return to that remarkable text known as Sefer Ha Yasher.
A Very Costly Funeral
We go back to the year 2255 on the Hebrew calendar (around 1505 BCE), the patriarch Jacob has just passed away at the age of 147. The 56th chapter of Sepher ha Yasher records that as the sons of Jacob attempted to bury him in Hebron, Esau the brother of Jacob blocked the entrance to the sepulcher. A scuffle broke out and Esau was decapitated, his head rolling into the tomb. The scene escalated from a skirmish to an all out battle. The children of Jacob defeat the children of Esau.
Among the captives is Zepho, the grandson of Esau. He is taken to Egypt in chains. Years later, when Joseph passes away, Zepho escapes from his Egyptian captors and flees along the western coast of Africa until he arrives in Dinhaba. Angeas appoints Zepho as “captain of his hosts.” Angeas will come to regret this action. From the moment Zepho takes command he will lobby daily to mount an all-out war against the Egyptians. In reality he is more interested in revenge against the children of Israel who are still living peacefully among the Egyptians. Zepho continued to pound the drums of war against Egypt. The hatred for the Children of Israel had been learned at the knee of his father and grandfather: Eliphaz and Esau.
Angeas was afraid to take on the Egyptian armies knowing they also enlisted the Israelites as fighters. Zepho soon grew disenchanted with Angeas and turned against him and migrates to the coasts of Chittim. There he was hired by the locals to defend them against the likes of Angeas. It was during this time that Zepho not only proved himself on the battlefield but he became exceedingly rich.
It is at this point in our search for the Esau/Edom connection that we will see the pieces come together. In the 61st chapter ofSepher ha Yasher, verses 24-25 tells how Zepho, the grandson of Esau, becomes a leader of the people called the children of Chittim:
“And the children of Chittim saw the valor of Zepho…and they made Zepho king over them…they built him a very large palace for his royal habitation and made a large throne for him, and Zepho reigned over the whole land of Chittim and over the land of Italia fifty years.”
History and myth are easily assimilated with the passage of time. We have already seen a few examples where the two have become intertwined. If Zepho, the son of Eliphaz, grandson of Esau became the first king to rule over all of Italy, it would come as no surprise that his subjects would want to know of his origins. As he traced his lineage, relating how G-d told Rebecca that great leaders were in her womb and adds the detail that Jacob and Esau were twins, this account could have evolved into a saga of twins born of a god and suckled by a wolf. I have speculated how the wolf wandered into this legend. It is not too much of a stretch to consider that the Hebrew word for “wolf” is ze’ev. Though not spelled the same, it sounds very much like Zepho.
We can now see how this grandson of Esau/Edom brought his legacy of hatred for Israel to a people and place that would grow into an instrument of terrible cruelty and oppression known as the Roman Empire.
Treachery Brings Bondage
Zepho is also a key player in the pivotal decision by the Egyptians to enslave Israel. If you have ever wondered how Egypt could turn from a nation grateful to Joseph for saving them from starvation to evil overseers Sepher ha Yasher provides the answer.
Earlier, we learned that one of the reasons that Zepho turned against his former ally Angeas was that ruler’s refusal to attack Egypt. After Zepho was securely ensconced as king over the children of Chittim, he mounted an invasion against Egypt and called upon his relatives, the Edomites, now residing in Seir (Petra)to join him. He also enlisted the aid of the Ishmaelites in a massive onslaught that must have rivaled our modern Normandy Invasion. The Egyptians defended themselves by meeting Zepho and his army where they were camped, somewhere east of the Delta region.
Curiously the Egyptians feared that the Children of Israel would turn against them in battle. After all, they reasoned, the Israelites are blood relatives of Zepho and his Edomite band. However, when the onslaught of Zepho’s combined forces proved too powerful, the Egyptians pulled back in retreat and called up the Israelites as reinforcements. Here’s where the real trouble began.
Israel joined the Egyptians in the fray but the Egyptians kept running! It was now the vastly outnumbered Israelites against the combined might of Chittim, Edom and the Ishamelites. Israel called out to Hashem to strengthen them and the Creator answered their prayer. They fought on with such bravery and fierceness that they put thousands to flight. The armies of Zepho began their own retreat. The Israelites have turned the tide of battle in their favor. They return home to Egypt but not before they tend to some unfinished business. As Israel encounters the still retreating Egyptian deserters they pretend that they are the enemy and execute them along the way. This act is to have enormous and far-reaching consequences.
he surviving Egyptian deserters return to the king and recount the terrible battle. They lodge a formal protest regarding the attack of Israel while conveniently omitting their own cowardly retreat, which left the Hebrews outnumbered.
Hearing this report, Pharaoh believes that the Hebrews pose an internal threat to the nation. But because of their prowess on the battlefield it is also apparent that the Egyptians would not survive a civil war. They must design a plot to gradually destroy Israel. Using the recent attack by Zepho as an excuse, Pharaoh calls on all citizens of Egypt to join in a national work project to fortify the country against future assaults from foreign invaders. The crown proposes to improve the cities of Pithom and Rameses, in the Delta to defend their eastern frontier. Pharaoh shows his support of the project by ceremonially laying the first brick.
The children of Israel cheerfully work alongside their Egyptian neighbors while Hebrew and Egyptian alike received their daily wages from the government-financed venture. Slowly, according to the plan, the Egyptian workers withdrew forcing the Israelite laborers to take up the slack. Over a period of time, the Hebrews found themselves alone on the construction and completely under the supervision of the Egyptians. And that is how Israel became slaves in Egypt.[xliii]
Edom’s Version of Enlightenment
We can now see how the Egyptians rationalized their enslavement of Israel.[xliv] Zepho’s involvement in the above episode demonstrates something far more important. Prior to the enslavement of Israel we see how this descendant of Esau mobilizes international forces to blot out Israel. This is a pattern that will emerge throughout history.
Edom’s influence, through Zepho, now gains a foothold in the Italian peninsula, home of the coming Roman Empire. Just as kings would rule Edom before there was a king over Israel, Edom would also establish his worldview and his religion before the giving of the Torah. Just as Israel is entering a period of enslavement, which will shape them into a nation, Zepho is also entering a state of preparation to become a world power.
Though Zepho would reign securely, a later passage in Sepher Ha Yasher reveals, “…he walked in the ways of the children of Chittim and the wicked children of Esau, to serve other gods which his brethren, the children of Esau had taught him.”[xlv]
Since Zepho came from Esau it is easy to trace their reliance Baal worship. Early on, Esau had broken the heart of his mother Rebecca by marrying Canaanite women and Baal was their favorite diety. Baal would transform, linguistically into Apollo. Baal was not unknown to the ancient Romans. Literally, a few miles from the shores of Italy, in ancient Carthage there are graveyards full of the remains of children offered up in Baal worship.[xlvi] There are hints of other gods from the Middle East that may have been taught to the early Romans. For instance, Adonis was the Greco-Roman name for Tammuz. His Greek name is a corruption of the Semitc adoni, which means, “lord.”
Before we leave the historical underpinnings of our story, I want to offer one more clue that Chittim is Rome. The Dead Sea Scrolls, particularly the War Scroll, have several references to Chittim and make it very plain that these people are the Romans. However, most scholars, believe that the scrolls are only using Chittim as a “code word” for the Romans. But isn’t it possible that the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls described the Romans as Chittim simply because they knew this was their actual lineage?
In the final analysis, I don’t really find all these mixed rabbinical opinions all that problematic. I respect Talmudic sages and believe that when they seem to disagree, they are in reality giving us different facets of the truth. For instance, if one sage states that Chittim is Cyprus and another commentator says it is Rome, it could mean that this culture made their first stop at Cyprus after the dispersion of the nations and then moved on to what we now call Italy.
Truth and Beauty
The Chittim taught Zepho “enlightenment,” a love of truth and beauty transmitted from their Greek ancestors. But it was still Greece’s version of truth and beauty. Zepho’s influence was to be the avenue that allowed all of these idolatrous concepts to take hold and spread through Europe down through the centuries. If this was enlightenment why did it have the opposite effect on Israel? Rabbi Dr. Natan T. Lopes Cardozo offers this explanation,
“Midrashic literature often compares the Greek empire to “darkness which blinded the eyes of the Jews (Choshech ze Yavan). The traditional interpretation is that the Jews in the days of the Maccabees were blinded by the Greek worship of the body and followed their example. It may, however, have a much deeper meaning. The Greeks are inventors of historical interpretation. Greek thinkers were among the first who tried to understand history in its more “scientific” form as reflected in the need to search for cause and effect. From the point of view of the Midrash, this approach blinded the Jews from reading history as a result of [Divine] emanations and their human response. If confused the deeper meaning of history, reversed effect with cause and darkened the clear insight of the Jews.”[xlvii]
Esau had rejected the ethical lifestyle of his brother Jacob. Esau’s reliance on self was taught to his grandson Zepho. Among the Chittim he would find a ready acceptance of that concept. The Torah given at Mount Sinai would represent something totally alien to his subjects. They could not agree to blind submission (we call it faith in G-d) to the Lord of the Universe. Coupled with their reliance on logic and reason was a strong drive for independence.
The concept of Democracy was rooted in that drive for individualism. On one hand these were a people who embraced hedonism to the extreme. On the other they believed happiness was secured through purely intellectual pursuits. The Greek intellectuals known as Sophists eventually “proved” that there were no gods. It was smart to do away with the whole pantheon but the rot set in because, in their philosophy, there was no room for any kind of Supreme Being. This was to sow the seeds of their downfall. The late Rafael Eisenberg, in Survival – Israel and Mankind, sums it up thusly,
“The effect of the Sophist teaching was the final undermining of the authority of the gods, who were declared nonexistent. And without gods there was no real basis for moral conduct. Deprived of objective anchorage, moral principles were therefore all relative, as indeed the Sophists taught. For every ethical principle, its contrast was equally valid. Morality consists simply in satisfaction of desire.”[xlviii]
Eisenberg’s book is a relevant and powerful work that documents the root causes of our global ills and how, as the title suggests, the very existence of our planet hinges on Israel’s survival. And Israel’s survival depends solely on their national belief in the words of the Torah. Eisenberg makes an impressive case against the weakness of all other philosophies and forms of government.
The Greek ideas should have brought time of peace and tranquility. After all, a democracy meant everyone could pursue his or her own vision of happiness. But the opposite occurred. After defeating the Persians, the city-states of Athens and Sparta were locked in a power struggle for supremacy. They would prove easy prey for Alexander the Great. This Macedonian hero, schooled in Greek culture and philosophy, would conquer them and spread these ideas to the known world. After his death, the infighting continued among the Mediterranean city-states and they would fall victim to the emerging Roman Empire.
Imperial Rome would be the most insatiable of all. Though they espoused the Greek concepts of truth, beauty and democracy–they were, in reality, a brutal people. That’s why the Jewish sages compared them to swine. As this unclean animal wallows in filth it shows its split hoof. But the pig can’t meet the laws of kashrut since it does not also chew the cud. In the same way, the Roman Republic loved to proclaim noble virtues to the world while it was in reality full of vast internal corruption and decadence.
I should interject here that Israel, as it has been dispersed around the globe, has influenced every nation and every empire where they have wandered. One example cited in the works of the Roman historian Cicero illustrates how the conquered Jews had a profound impact that effected a change in their conquerors:
“…the Jews brought to Rome in chains have succeeded in an amazingly short time in introducing and cultivating wisdom and ethics in all Roman cities.”[xlix]
Cicero further relates how the Jews influenced the Romans so much that many began to see the futility of their endless and bloody domination.
The worldview of Edom, through Zepho, dominated cultures and empires after him. Edom’s influence flowed into Europe from the Middle East through the centuries. It can be charted through time starting with Rome then to the conquest of Constantine, continuing with the Byzantine Empire on to the Germanic Carolingians then the Hapsburgs and eventually Nazi Germany, which proclaimed that it was the Holy Roman Empire reborn.
Constantine was a benevolent dictator, if there is such a thing, who would meld the Roman idea of conquest and autocratic rule with religion echoing the crude beginnings of Zepho, the first benevolent dictator of the Romim, on the River Tibreu in the Italian Peninsula.
Following the death of his father, Constantine took the reigns of power. His influence was significant as author James Carroll reveals in his book Constantine’s Sword:
“…Constantine was the instrument of revolution in the religious imagination of the Mediterranean world, and eventually Europe. His political impact on Christianity is widely recognized, but his role as shaper of its central religious idea is insufficiently appreciated.”[l]
Constantine was like many of those world shakers and movers who came before and after him. In the beginning there is a tolerance toward other creeds as long as it suited his designs. But Constantine’s tolerance for the Jews only went so far. As Carroll points out,
“Christianity went from being a private apolitical movement to being a shaper of world politics. The status of Judaism was similarly reversed.”[li]
This turn of events would eventually bring about a repositioning of Jerusalem in the hearts and minds of the world. It was no longer regarded as a forgotten Roman province. It now held a special place for the now powerful Catholic Church. In this scenario, the Papacy would continue to exert influence through the many permutations of the Roman Empire.
Constantine began his ascent to power while living in Roman province of Germania. The late Professor Carroll Quigley who schooled diplomats and world leaders at the Foreign Service School at Georgetown University had an amazing grasp of history. He wrote that even in 1945 modern Germany was still feeling the effects of Roman domination:
“The German continued to dream of that glimpse he had of that glorious, holy, eternal, imperial system before it sank. (The German) refused to accept that it was gone…All the subsequent failures of the German people from the failure of the Otto the Great to Hitler in the 20th century have served to perpetuate and perhaps intensify the German thirst…for the totalitarian way of life.”[lii]
The reason I have continually invoked the image of the epic wrestling match of Esau and Jacob is because it vividly distills the historical struggle of opposing philosophies locked together. The Greco-Roman concepts of government and religion have been continually reborn, coming out of the womb embraced by Israel’s Torah values. Even a milestone such as the Magna Carta, drafted in 1215 AD was a mixture of the two. This document, which signaled a new beginning for the rights of the individual in England, was not welcome by the crown. King John immediately appealed to the Vatican to have it annulled. Of course, they were happy to oblige. The French Revolution in 1789 was an event that actually paved the way for Napolean’s dictatorial thrust for conquest.
This idea of Democracy would fuel the engine that powered the founding of our own country. But again its birth represented the struggle between different ideologies. That wrestling is still going on today. This system of government has allowed science and industry to flourish. And even though a staggering 80% of the Nobel Prizes for Science have gone to men and women who profess a belief in the G-d of the Bible, the world still manages to leave the Creator out of the equation.[liii]
Rafael Eisenberg asks, “Why does any success granted to man give rise to the illusion that he can master his own fate in complete independence of God? Human nature loathes subservience and dependence on others. The slightest gain, therefore, provokes exaggerated delusions of independence.”[liv]
Many of you and your loved ones shed their precious blood to keep the world safe for democracy. Yet much of the world is not grateful to us. Thanks to the shenanigans witnessed in the last presidential election the other nations are wondering just how well the system works. Though Democracy is supposed to represent the highest ideas of man, many of those who have attempted to save it, have done so at questionable costs.
Professor Quigley believed like so many others of his ilk that peace should be had at any price. He had intimate knowledge of the various Round Table Groups in America and England. One such group was the Royal Institute of International Affairs formed in 1919. Cecil Rhodes the fabulously wealthy diamond magnate aided and abetted the creation of this organization with like-minded individuals to preserve and expand the British Empire as well as their own ideas of what was right and good for mankind. Rhodes was an ardent student of John Ruskin who espoused a belief system that found its roots in ancient Greece. Author Jim Marrs relates,
“Ruskin reportedly read Plato’s Republic every day, embraced Plato’s concept of the perfect society being one that had structure imposed from centralized leadership-a ruling class -downward. Marx and Engles, the founders of modern Communism, also were students of Plato and echoed Ruskin’s views. Advocating tight central control over the state, either by a dictator or a special ruling class…”[lv]
Prior to World War II, they spawned the Council of Foreign Relations, the Institutes of Pacific Relations and a group called Union Now. This latter was based in England and was instrumental in conceiving the so-called “three bloc world”. They envisioned a new Europe with England on one end of the continent and the Soviet Union on the other. An Adolf Hitler-ruled bloc of countries would provide the protective buffer in between. Neville Chamberlain was at their beck and call who shuttled across the continent seeking to appease Adolf Hitler.
Union Now was also under the misguided impression that Hitler was only interested in his immediate neighborhood. He was like the farmer who said that he only wanted the property that bordered his own land. If Poland and Czechoslovakia refused to give in, they were standing in the way of peace. Chamberlain finally extracted a promise from the Czech government to grant “autonomy” to Germans living in the Sudetenland.
Tragically, Chamberlain returned to England proclaiming, “Peace in our time.” Hitler’s tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia shortly afterwards.
It was this kind of treachery that eventually led to World War II and the Holocaust.[lvi] The European powers and anti-Torah Liberals are using this very same model today. They are telling Israel to dole out whole portions of its land under the guise of granting “autonomy” to the Palestinians. By not doing so, Israel is accused of standing in the way of peace and democracy.
Theocracy vs. Democracy
As shocking as it may sound, Democracy does not work in G-d’s plan for Israel. Through history, the wrestling of Esau and Jacob (Edom and Israel) has continued. Edom has dominated this historic struggle with man-made ideas of self-reliance and independence. I am not saying that Democracy is evil. It has worked better than any other man-made but it is far from perfect. The very fact that it does not come from G-d is evidence of its weakness. The only reason that our system has lasted this long is because our founding fathers had the wisdom to incorporate actual Torah principles into the mix.
A major flaw inherent in Democracy is relativism. Translated into practical terms it means that the mob rules. To put it even more succinctly, Democracy insists on consent while Torah insists on wisdom. Israel will become a model nation only when it implements G-d’s blueprint for government found in the Torah.
The twins are still wrestling with one another but now the dust from this struggle is most vividly seen within the borders of Israel. It has given rise to a peculiar mental state that Paul Eidelberg calls “demophrenia.” I cannot articulate this ironic dilemma any better than Mr. Eidelberg, a brilliant professor of Political Science at Bar-Ilan University:
“By emulating a democracy that pays lip service to Christianity, Israel’s government has unwittingly conditioned Gentiles to expect the Jews to abide by the most unassertive and self-effacing Christian precepts: turn the other cheek, love your enemies, do not resist evil. And to the extent that (Israel) has adhered to these benign and apolitical Christian precepts-unpracticed by any Gentile nation-it not only has forsaken Judaism, it has also repressed the sense of outrage among Jews whose loved ones have been the victims of Arab terrorists.”[lvii]
The hypocrisy of our Western press and leadership is blatantly exhibited whenever Israel attempts to defend itself against the constant onslaught of terrorism within their own borders. These are the same people that demand that a convicted Oklahoma City bomber pay the price for his terrible, murderous act. Is his mindless deed more ruthless than the Palestinian car-bombers and snipers? It happens almost daily in Israel.
Even though the government of Israel likes to boast that it is one of the few democracies in the Middle East, there is a craziness that infects the process all in the name of democracy. This is demonstrated by the fact that an Arab member of the Knesset can decide on the issue of “Who is a Jew?” If, somehow, the Arabs became a majority in the Israeli parliament, they could actually vote in an Arab government! I have to quote Eidelberg again when he says that the present situation,
“…confirms the proposition that politics and democracy in Israel are in the most advanced state of decay. This decay is providential; for one of the world-historical functions of democracy is to destroy all man-made ideologies and then self-destruct.”[lviii]
But Professor Eidelberg is not a prophet of doom. He is quick to point out that there is a growing body of scientists, mathematicians and economists in Israel who are espousing the Torah as the prototype of genuine knowledge. Brilliant minds like Rabbi Dr. Marvin Antelman, Professor Herman Branover, the late Dr. Naftali Berg (who worked for our Pentagon) and other Observant Jewish thinkers have applied Torah basics to such subjects as Quantum mechanics, Chemistry and Biology with startling results.
The Torah Sages teach that every nation has an angel. When the Creator decrees that a nation will fall, that angel is put to flight. But there is one vital difference between Edom and Israel. According to the Torah Sages, Israel has no angel. It is directly under the influence of HaShem.
The message of Edom has been to free oneself from the Creator. The results, as history vividly teaches, have been constant warfare and the decline in morality and the fall of empires. But Israel will win in this struggle and all of mankind will reap the benefits.
It may take another devastating war or some horrendous display of technology gone awry but mankind will come to see the effects of denying G-d. Eventually, there will be a renewed level of understanding and a purer form of knowledge coupled with a purer form of worship, free of idols. Every aspect of knowledge in physics, medicine, and all other sciences will reach a level unrealized in the past. And that knowledge will be of a higher, more rational nature…because it is a most rational thing to believe in the G-d of Israel.
“And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. Daniel 2:43
[i] Commentary on Toledoth in Meam Loez, Rabbi Yaacov Culi (Moznaim Pblshrs. NY, 1989) p.456
[ii] Genesis 36:8 “Esau is Edom.”
[iii] Perkei Rabbi Eliezer translated by Gerald Friedlander (Sepher-Hermon Press, NY)p.265
[iv] It is important to note that the same chapter reveals that the Edomites also appointed kings from other nations over them. Bela, son of Beor, was one such ruler of Edom.
[v] Daniel, The Artscroll Tanach (Mesorah, NY) p.105
[vi] Gen. 25:28 can also be rendered that Esau was “a trapper with his mouth” see The Living Torah by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan (Mozanim Publshrs. 1989) p.116
[vii] The TANAKH is another name for the Hebrew Bible. The word is an acronym for Torah, Neviim (Prophets) and Khetuvim (Writings)
[viii] Rabbi Shlomo Rotenberg, Am Olam: History of the Eternal Nation, (Keren Pub. Brooklyn, NY)p.71
[ix] The English translation of Meam Loez comes to us through the efforts of the brilliant Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, of blessed memory.
[x] Durant, The Life of Greece (Simon & Schuster, NY,1959) p.38
[xi] also see Jeremiah 17:19
[xii] Rafael Eisenberg, Survival:Israel & Mankind (Feldheim, Jerusalem/NY, 1991) p.12
[xiii]Eliezer Shulman, Sequence of Events in the Old Testament (Ministry of Defense Pbls. Tel-Aviv) p.53
[xiv]The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus (Kregel Pub. Grand Rapids, MI, 1960) p.30
[xv] Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford University Press 1961)p.2
[xvi] Aubrey De Selincourt, Livy: Early History of Rome (Penguin Classics, Middlesex, UK, 1960) pp.12-13
[xvii] Peter D. Arnott, The Romans and Their World (St. Martins Press, NY,1970)p.41
[xviii] Livy: Early History of Rome, pp.34-35
[xix] Genesis 10:1-4
[xx] cf. Genesis 10:25, “for in his (Peleg’s) days the earth was divided.”
[xxi] Rabbi Sholomo Rotenberg, Am Olam, p.39
[xxii]Chapter 6, Antiquities of the Jews, trans. by Wm. Whiston (Kregel Pub.,Grand Rapids, MI, 1960)p.31
[xxiii]Aryeh Kaplan, Living Torah (Moznaim Pub. NYC) footnote on p.40
[xxiv] Numbers 24:24, Daniel 11:30
[xxv] Book of Jasher (Artisan Pub. Muskogee, OK) p.43
[xxvi] Livy-Early History of Rome (Penguin Classics, Middlesex, UK, 1960)pp.43-45
[xxvii] Psalms 48:7, Isaiah 2:16, 23:1, Ezekiel 27:25, Jonah 1:3
[xxviii] Book of Jasher (Artisan Press, Muskogee, OK, ã1988) p. 148.
[xxix] Merriam-Webster Geographical Dictionary (Merriam-Webster Springfield, Mass.) p.1161
[xxx] Will Durant, The Life of Greece (Simon & Schuster, NY, 1939) p.169
[xxxi] See Jeremiah 10:9
[xxxii] J.M. Roberts, Penguin History of the World (Peguin Books, London, UK, 1976) pp.581-582
[xxxiii] Genesis 10:4, I Chronicles 1:7
[xxxiv] Herodotus 2:52, translated by David Grene (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill. 1987)p.154
[xxxv] Thomas Bulfinch, The Golden Age of Myth & Legend (Wordsworth Editions, UK, 1993) p.254
[xxxvi] Durant, Life in Greece p.35
[xxxvii] The Aeneid of Virgil, translated by Allen Mandelbaum (Bantam Books, NY, 1971
[xxxviii] Livy: The Early History of Rome (Penguin Classics, Middlesex, England, 1960)pp.35-36
[xxxix] Book of Jasher, Chapter 60, pp.182-183
[xl] J.M. Roberts, The Penguin History of the World, pp.225-226
[xli] An anonymous text on the history of the Second Temple said to be based on Josephus.
[xlii] Book of Daniel, Artscroll Edition (Mesorah Publications, 1979)p.106
[xliii] Sepher HaYasher (Yosher /KTAV Publishing House, Hoboken, NJ, 1993) pp.169-171
[xliv] Hashem ordained the enslavement of Israel. However, at the end of their exile, Egypt would suffer greatly because their methods were harsher and far more cruel than necessary.
[xlv] Book of Jasher, 64:4, p.191
[xlvi] New Light on Ancient Carthage, edited by John Griffiths Pedley (University of Michigan Press, 1980)
[xlvii] Cardozo, “State of Israel-Thoughts to Ponder #69” (Root & Branch Association, Mar 11, 2001)
[xlviii] Eisenberg, edited by Abraham Sutton, Survival- Israel & Mankind (Feldheim Publrs, NY, 1991) p.28
[xlix] Rabbi Petachya Menkin, Pardes Petachya (Tel Aviv, 1936)
[l] Carrol, Constantine’s Sword (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, NY, 2001)p.173
[lii] Quigley, Tragedy & Hope (MacMillan & Co. NY, 1966)pp.409-411
[liii] this figure come from author John Tully in God, Jews & Comets
[liv] Eisenberg, Survival: Israel & Mankind, p.33
[lv] Jim Marrs, Rule By Secrecy, (Perennial Paperback 2001) p.86
[lvi] Quigley, Tradgedy & Hope, pp.580-583
[lvii] Eidelberg, Demophrenia:Israel &the Malaise of Democracy (Prescott Press, Lafayette, LA, 1994)p.164
Wrestling with angels, Jim Long